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BUILD YOUR OWN ROBOT: 
ASSEMBLING THE ARMS 




$1.25 SEPT. 1980 



let up a home video system 
lolid-state sounder applications 
lew hi-fi noise reduction system 



Build your own wipeout videogame 
Inside VHS recorder circuits 
New packaging system for projects 




A breadboard as 
big as your ideas. 



EXPERIMENTOR325 S3.05* 



EXPER1MENTOR650 $6.90* 




22 five-point terminals plus two 10-point 46 five-point terminals plus two 20-point 
bus Strips. 0.3" centers; 1.9x2.1 x.4"(43 (bus strips. 0.6"centers; 3.6 x 2.4 x. 4" (91 
x 53 x 10mm). |x 61 x 10mm), 



EXPERiMENTOR 600 

$12.05* 94 five-point terminals plus 
two 40-point bus strips. 0.6" centers 



EXPERIMENTOR QUAD BUS 
STRIP $4.40* Four 40-point bus Strips. 
6.0 x 1.0 x .4" (152 x 25 x 10mm). 



Instant hookupfor all types of 
components, with push-in/pull-out ease. 

Adaptable for all types of com- 
ponents, . . DIP-compatible . . . conform 
to 0.1 "grid; jumpers are#22-30 solid 
hookup wire. 

Mix and match large and small 
chips in the same circuit. Use 300-series 
sockets for smaller DIPS; 600-senes with 
0.6"centerchannel for full fan-out with 
larger chips. 

Infinite flexibility lets you ex- 
pand and modify circuits vertically and 
horizontally, simply by snapping sockets 
together. 

Easy mounting using 4-40 
screws from front or 6- 32F self-tapping 
screws from rear. Vinyl-insulated backing 
lets you fasten to any surface. 




EXPERIMENTOR 350 S6.05* 
46 five-point terminals plus two 20-point 
bus strips. 0.3" centers; 3.6 x 2. 1 x .4" (91 
x 53 x 10mm). 

Marked tie- points simplify 
translation from breadboards to PC 
boards or wiring tables. 

Ruggedly builtof abrasion-re- 
sistant materials that withstand 100°C. 



EXPERIMENTOR 300 $10.95* 

94 five-point terminals plus two 40-point 
bus strips. 0.3" centers; 6.0 x 2.1 x .4" 
(152x53x 10mm). 

Quick construction of micro- 
processors and other circuits— each 
EXP-4B gives you four bus lines, with 8-, 
12-. and 16-line address and data buses 
easily created by combining Bus Strips. 



It's hard to believe how much faster and easier 
building circuits can be . . .until you try our 
Experimenter™ solderless bread boarding sock- 
ets. From the largest DIP to the smallest resistor, 
components plug in and out instantly, without 
special hardware or jumper cables. So you save 

Smarter tools for testing and design. 

GLOBAL 



time and money by eliminating soldering and 
component damage. Start small and expand in 
any direction your thinking takes you, by snap- 
ping sockets together vertically or horizontally. 
With no limit to your ideas. Get started today, for 
as little as $3,05*! 



70 Fulton Terr.. New Haven. CT 06509 (2031 621-3103. Twx 710-465-1227 

OTHER OFFICES: San Francisco (415) 421-8873, TWX 910-372-7992 

Europe: Phone Satfron-Walden 0799-21682, TLX S17477 

Canada: Len Fmkler Ltd.. Downsview. Ontario 



Call toll-free for details 
SPECIALTIES 1 800-243-6077 

^* r " """■"""*»»' ■""^■■"m ■■»*«■"' Durinq business hours 

CORPORATION 



•Suggested US resale. Prices, specifications subjeel to change without notice © Copyright 1980 Global Specialties Corporation. 



CIRCLE 39 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 




STEREO BREAKTHROUGH 



Bone 
Fone 

A new concept in sound technology 
may revolutionize the way we 
listen to stereo music. 



The Bone Fone surrounds your entire body 
with a sound almost impossible to imagine. 



You're standing in an open field. Suddenly 
there's music from all directions. Your bones 
resonate as if you're listening to beautiful 
stereo music inf rant of a powerful home stereo 
system. 

But there's no radio in sight and nobody else 
hears what you do. It's an unbelievable 
experience that will send chills through your 
body when you first hear it. 

AROUND YOU 

And nobody will know you're listening to a 
stereo. The entire sound system is actually 
draped around you like a scarf and can be 
hidden under a jacket or worn over clothes. 

The Bone Fone is actually an AM/FM stereo 
multiplex radio with its speakers located near 
your ears. When you tune in a stereo station, 
you get the same stereo separation you'd 
expect from earphones but without the bulk 
and inconvenience. And you also get some- 
thing you won't expect. 

INNER EAR BONES 

The sound will also resonate through your 
bones -all the way to the sensitive bones of 
your inner ear. It's like feeling the vibrations of 
a powerful stereo system or sifting in the first 
row listening to a symphony orchestra- it's 
breathtaking. 

Now you can listen to beautiful stereo music 
everywhere -not just in your living room. 
Imagine walking your dog to beautiful stereo 
music or roller skating to a strong disco beat. 

You can ride a bicycle or motorcycle, jog 
and even do headstands-the Bone Fone 
stays on no matter what the activity. The Bone 
Fone stereo brings beautiful music and con- 
venience to every indoor and outdoor activity 
without disturbing those around you and with- 
out anything covering your ear. 

SKI INVENTION 

The Bone Fone was invented by an 
engineer who liked to ski. Every time he took a 
long lift ride, he noticed other skiers carrying 
transistor radios and cassette players and 
wondered if there was a better way to keep 
your hands free and listen to stereo music. 

So he invented the Bone Fone stereo. When 
he put it around his neck, he couldn't believe 
his ears. He was not only hearing the music 



and stereo separation, but the sound was 
resonating through his bones giving him the 
sensation of standing in front of a powerful 
stereo system. 

AWARDED PATENT 

The inventor took his invention to a friend 
who also tried ft on. His friend couldn't believe 
what he heard and at first thought someone 
was playing a trick on him. 

The inventor was awarded a patent for his 
idea and brought it to JS&A. We took the idea 
and our engineers produced a very sensitive 
yet powerful AM/FM multiplex radio called the 
Bone Fone. 

The entire battery-powered system is self- 
contained and uses four integrated circuits 
and two ceramic filters for high station select- 
ivity. The Bone Fone weighs only 15 ounces, 
so when worn over your shoulders, the weight 
is not even a factor. 

BUILT TO TAKE IT 

The Bone Fone was built to take abuse. The 
large 70 millimeter speakers are protected in 
flexible water and crush resistant cases. The 
case that houses the radio itself is made of 
rugged ABS plastic with a special reinforce- 
ment system. We knew that the Bone Fone 
stereo may take a great deal of abuse so we 
designed it with the quality needed to with- 
stand the worst treatment. 

The Bone Fone stereo is covered with a 
sleeve made of Lycra Spandex-the same 
material used to make expensive swim suits, 
so it's easily washable. You simply remove the 
sleeve, dip it in soapy water, rinse and let the 
sleeve dry. It's just that easy. The entire 
system is also protected against damage from 
moisture and sweat making it ideal for jogging 
or bicycling. 

The sleeve comes in brilliant Bone Fone 
blue -a color designed especially for the 
system. An optional set of four sleeves in 
orange, red, green and black is also available 
for $1 0. You can design your own sleeve using 
the pattern supplied free with the optional kit. 

YOUR OWN SPACE 

Several people could be in a car, each tuned 
to his own program or bring the Bone Fone to a 
ball game for the play by play. Cyclists, 



joggers, roller skaters, sports fans, golfers, 
housewives, executives- everybody can find 
a use for the Bone Fone. It's the perfect gift. 

Why not order one on our free trial program 
and let your entire family try it out? Use it 
outdoors, while you drive, at ball games or 
while you golf, jog or walk the dog. But most 
important -compare the Bone Fone with your 
expensive home stereo system. Only then will 
you fully appreciate the major breakthrough 
this product represents, 

GET ONE SOON 

To order your Bone Fone, simply send your 
check or money order for S69.95 plus $2.50 
postage and handling to the address shown 
below. (Illinois residents add 6% sales tax.) 
Credit card buyers may call our toll-free 
number below. Add $10 if you wish to also 
receive the accessory pack of four additional 
sleeves. 

We'll send you the entire Bone Fone stereo 
complete with four A A cell batteries, instruc- 
tions, and 90-day limited warranty including 
our prompt service-by- mail address. 

When you receive your unit, use it for two 
weeks. Take it with you to work, or wear it in 
your car. Take walks with it, ride your bicycle or 
roller skate with it. Let your friends try it out. If 
after our two-week free trial, you do not feel 
that the Bone Fone is the incredible stereo 
experience we've described, return it for a 
prompt and courteous refund, including your 
$2.50 postage and handling. You cant lose 
and you'll be the first to discover the greatest 
new space-age audio product of the year. 

Discover the freedom, enjoyment, and 
quality of the first major breakthrough in 
portable entertainment since the transistor 
radio. Order a Bone Fone stereo at no 
obligation, today. 

PRODUCTS 
JHAT 
•\THIMfe 

Dept. RE One JS&A Plaza 
Northbrook, I II. 60062 (312) 564-7000 

Call TOLL-FREE 800 323-6400 

In Illinois Call (312) 564-7000 

©JS&A Group, Inc. ,1 980 




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ELECTRONIC BREAKTHROUGH! 



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Awesome Fingerti 
Power! 



• CASIO C-80 DIGITAL QUARTZ 
CH RONOG RAPH/CALCU L ATOR 

• THE OLIVETTI WORLD'S SMALLEST 
PRINTING CALCULATOR/LCD CLOCK 




The two wonders on this page are a- 
mong the best, most wanted, and most 
useful everyday electronic products in 
the world. 

Each one brings you state-of-the-art 
function and design and places awesome 
calculating power at your fingertips. 
Let's examine these breakthroughs one 
at a time. 

ANATOMY OF YOUR FINGERTIP 

The Casio C-80 Chronographic Cal- 
culator is the first wrist instrument 
whose numeric and function command 
keys are designed so you can operate 
them with your fingertip. No need to 
carry a special stylus or look for a pencil 
with a sharp point whenever you want 
to calculate something. 

The Casio C-80 has an 8-digit read-out. 
It adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides, 
and performs chain calculations. Float- 
ing decimal tool. 

It tells you the time digitally in two 
zones (accurate within t 15 seconds a 
month), and it tells month and date. 
It's also a stopwatch in hundredths of 
seconds, with capacity up to 23 hrs., 
59 min. 59.99 sees. It gives you both 
lap and net times as well. 

The C-80 weighs much less than metal 
calculator watches. The case and band 
are space-age unbreakable plastic, and 
the LCD face is protected by hard min- 
eral glass. 

So far as we know, only one or two 
stores in New York City have been able 
to get the C-80. And we've seen it ad- 
vertised as high as $75,00 — and that 
only lets you reserve it, with a long wait 
for delivery. 





You can call our toll-free number for 
immediate delivery, and charge just 
$69.95 (plus $2.50 insured shipping) to 
your credit card. Thirty day money- 
back guarantee, one-year parts and labor 
warranty. 

Just three more points: the battery's 
included. There's a tiny light to illumi- 
nate the display at night. In fact, it's 
bright enough to help you find your 
keys if you drop them in the dark. And 
when you receive your Casio C-80, re- 
sist the temptation to press the keys with 
your fingernail. Not necessary. Just use 
your fingertips. 

WORLDS SMALLEST PRINTING 
CALCULATOR! 

Besides all the calculating functions 
you expect, the Olivetti Logos 9 offers 
you these added features, plus more, 
thanks to some new technological break- 
throughs, 

• Measures only 1 inch by 2Vi inches 
by 4 5/8 inches, with full 12 digit 
liquid crystal display, with floating or 
fixed position decimal. 

• Exclusive paper cartridge system, sim- 
ply slide up the calculator top and 
behold the smallest printing system 
you've ever seen. 

• Clear crisp entries on Olivetti's special 
cartridge paper. Each cartridge lasts for 
up to 1,300 entries. 

(Thirty two rolls. ..good for three years 
of use, only $18.00). 

• Incredibly fast printing speed of two 
lines per second, with print recall. 
Should your entries exceed unit speed, 
the Logos 9 will still print each entry. 

• Rechargable batteries (up to 500 re- 
charges per battery). 

• Printing head labels all numerical en- 
tries with letters. You'll never forget 
your entries purpose. 

• Accumulating memory, plus fully in- 
dependent memory. 

• Digital clock, a totally accurate time- 
piece. 

• Ideal for people who employ, dis- 
counts, gross margins, and percentage 
markups. 

• Automatic average: The Logos 9 will 
automatically compute the average of a 
group of entries. 

• Complete memory recall and display. 

• Battery charging and 90 day limited 
warranty. 

• Easy Olivetti service by mail. 

CIRCLE 29 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



Try this amazing pocket calculator to- 
day, we're sure that you will agree that 
the Logos 9 is the most convenient and 
advanced pocket calculator you've ever 
seen. If after thirty days, you are not 
satisfied, return the unit for a prompt 
refund. 

The Olivetti Logos 9 was awarded at 
the International Consumer Electronic 
Show 1980 the distinguished position 
of being the "Most Innovative Product 
of the Year", and is the best selling 
pocket calculator in the world. 
Try it today. 

HERE'S HOW TO ORDER AND SAVE 

The C-80 Chronograph/Calculator is 
$69.95. The Printing Calculator is $89. 
95. That adds up to $159.90. If you 
order both for yourself (and don't for- 
get gift possibilities) pay only $144.95 
for a savings of $15.00. 

Or order any two and take $15.00 off 
their combined price. You can order to- 
day by calling one of our toll-free num- 
bers for immediate delivery. You save 
on insured shipping charges, as well: 
just $2.50 for each order, not each item. 

30 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

When you order, you're protected by 
our 30-day money back guarantee pol- 
icy. And each item is additionally cov- 
ered by a one-year parts and labor war- 
ranty. All units come with instructions, 
and batteries are included. 

Right now, call toll-free and charge 
what you want on American Express, 
Diners Club, Carte Blanche, Master Card, 
or Visa. 

800-526-2801 
800-257-7850 

In New Jersey call toll free: 
800-322-8650 

N.J, residents please add 5% sales tax. 

You can also mail your order with check 
or money order to: 

&^% INTERNATIONAL SALES GROUP 

W THE IMAGINATION PEOPLE*® 

Dept. RE 9, Lake wood Plaza 
Lakewood, New Jersey 08701 




Electronics 

Electronics publishers since 1908 



THE MAGAZINE FOR NEW 
IDEAS IN ELECTRONICS 



SEPTEMBER 1980 Vol. 51 No. 9 



SPECIAL FEATURE 



47 PLUG-IN MODULAR REMOTE CONTROL 

The BSR System X-10 plugs into AC wall outlets to 
provide remote control operation of lamps and appliances 
in your home or office. Steven A. Clarcia 



BUILD THIS 



55 



66 



UNJC0RN-1 ROBOT 

PART 2. Assembling the manipulator arms and "hands ." 
James A. Gupton, Jr. 

WIPEOUT VIDEOGAME 

Ten action-packed games in an arcade type videogame- 
Add on RF modulator and play it on your TV set. 
L. Steven Cheairs 



TECHNOLOGY 



4 LOOKING AHEAD 

Tomorrow's news today. David Lachenbruch 

22 SATELLITE TV NEWS 

The iatest happenings in an exciting new industry 
Gary M. Alton 

59 PIEZOELECTRIC SOUNDER APPLICATIONS 

Solid-state "beepers" have a variety of interesting circuit 
applications. This should give you a few ideas. 
Calvin R. Graf, W5LFM 

76 NEW IDEAS 

A winning circuit application from our readers. 

78 HOBBY CORNER 

A one-arm bandit circuit plus a new packaging system 
for projects. Earl "Doc" Savage, K4SDS 



VIDEO 52 HOW TO HOOK UP HOME VIDEO SYSTEMS 

How to connect a programmable VCR, videogame, pay- 
TV. cable T.V., and other inputs to a single TV set. 
Frank Gates 

70 VHS TRANSPORT CIRCUITS 

A look at the circuitry that controls the transport 
mechanism in VHS videotape recorders and how to 
troubleshoot it. Forest Bert 

96 SERVICE CLINIC 

Typical problems with tripler circuits and some not so 
typical. Jack Darr 

93 SERVICE QUESTIONS 

R-E's Service Editor solves technicians' problems. 



AUDIO 61 NEW NOISE REDUCTION SYSTEM 

The new High-Corn II system from Nakamichi provides 
18-dB more noise reduction in tape recorders than 
Dolby B. Len Feldmsn 

63 R.E.A.L. SOUND LAB TESTS B.LC./AVNET 
MODEL T-3 CASSETTE DECK 

Medium-priced cassette deck rates superb. Len Feldman 

RADIO S6 COMMUNICATIONS CORNER 

Transceivers with all the operating controls built into 
the microphone. Herb Friedman 



EQUIPMENT 
REPORTS 



38 The Defe nder TS- 1 CB Antenn a Tu ner/ Monitor 

40 IET Model RCS-500 R-C Substitution Box 

42 Datong Model AD-170 Active Antenna 

43 Micron ta BP-1 Blood Pressure Tester 



DEPARTMENTS 



122 Advertising Index 

16 Advertising Sales Offices 

103 Books 

102 Computer Reports 

16 Editorial 

1 23 Free InformationCard 



26 Letters 

105 Market Center 

103 New Lit 

83 New Products 

94 Radio Products 

100 Stereo Products 

7 What's News 



ON THE COVER 

You can turn on and off lamps and 
appliances without ever leaving your 
armchair with BSR's System X-10. To 
install the system, you simply plug the 
various modules into existing AC wall 
outlets. The system features a hand- 
held ultrasonic remote control unit 
and a programmable timer. For a look 
at the circuitry and how the system 
works, turn to page 47. 







turn 


^^^^^^^^^^^^_^^^__ 



NEW NOISE REDUCTION SYSTEM for tape re- 
corders provides 18-dB more noise reduction 
than Dolby B. For the complete details, turn to 
page 61. 







HANDS FOR THE UNICORN- 1 ROBOT are sole- 
noid activated. For details on how to assemble 
the manipulator arms and hands, turn to page 55. 



Radio-Electronics, (ISSN 0033-7662) Published monthly 
by Gernsback Publications, Inc., 200 Park Avenue South, 
New York. NY 10003. Phone: 212-777-6400. Controlled 
Circulation Postage Paid at Concord. NH. One-year sub- 
scription rate: USA. and U.S. possessions, $13.00, 
Canada, $16.00. Other countries, $18.00. Single copies 
$1 .25. © 1980 by Gernsback Publications. Inc. All rights 
reserved. Printed in U.S.A. 

Subscription Service: Mail all subscription orders, 
changes, correspondence and Postmaster Notices of 
undelivered copies (Form 3579) to Radio- Electronics 
Subscription Service, Box 2S20, Boulder. CO 80322. 

A stamped self-addressed envelope must accompany 
all submitted manuscripts and/or artwork or photo- 
graphs if their return is desired should they be rejected. 
We disclaim any responsibility for the loss or damage of 
manuscripts and/or artwork or photographs while in 
our possession or otherwise. 



As a service to readers, Radio-Electronics publishes available plana or information relating to newsworthy product*, technique* and tcientrtlg and technological development*. 
Because of possible variances In the quality and condition of materials and workmanship used by readers, Radio-Electronics disclaim* any responsibility for the sale and proper 
functioning of reader-built projects based upon or from plan* or Information published in this magazine. 



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A 3-disc race: General Electric threw the already complex 
videodisc race into pandemonium by embracing a third 
system -VHD (Video High Density), developed by the 
Japan Victor Company (JVC). The VHD system uses a 10- 
inch grooveless disc to play two hours (one hour per side) 
of color and stereo-sound information by reading out 
capacitance variations in the disc material. The disc re- 
volves at 900 rpm, and has features in common with both 
other consumer systems. Like the RCA CED (Capacitance 
Electronic Disc) system, the stylus and disc form the plates 
of what, in effect, is a variable capacitor; but the RCA sys- 
tem uses grooves to guide the stylus, while VHD employs 
pilot frequencies that differ between adjacent tracks. Like 
the Philips-MCA optical system, it's grooveless and is 
capable of certain special effects, such as fast, slow, and 
reverse motion. The CED disc revolves at 450 rpm and 
plays one hour per side. The optical disc spins at 1,800 
rpm (30 minutes per side) in the special-effects mode and 
at a speed varying from 600 to 1,800 in the so-called 
"constant linear velocity mode" (60 minutes per side}. 
The three systems are totally — and hopelessly — incom- 
patible with each other. 

GE's espousal of the VHD system came in talks (nearing 
completion at press time) to establish three jointly owned 
companies: 1. With Matsushita (Panasonic and Quasar) 
and JVC to manufacture players in the United States. 2. 
With those companies and Thorn EMI of England to press 
discs here. 3. With the same three companies to acquire 
rights and develop disc programming. VHD starts up far 
behind its competitors as a true dark horse. Players for 
the optical system are already being marketed by Mag- 
navox and Pioneer; discs are being sold by MCA Disco- 
Vision. RCA plans a nationwide launch for the Selecta- 
Vision CED system early in 1981 ; Zenith will also sell CED 
players and both RCA and CBS will press discs. JVC says 
that the VHD system can be on the American market by 
the end of 1981 at a price "competitive" to RCA's $500 
target (the Magnavox and Pioneer players are $775 and 
$749, respectively). 

Who's on first? RCA was the best-selling color-TV brand 
in the 1980 model-year (July 1979-June 1980), according 
to a survey by the industry newsletter Television Digest. 
That was the second consecutive model-year in which 
RCA was in the No, 1 spot, getting a 21% share of the 
market to Zenith's 20.5%. GE, with 7.5%, was No. 3 in 
color, followed by Sears Roebuck, also with 7.5% (but 
slightly lower in average ranking), Magnavox and Sony, 
with 7% and 6% respectively. In black-and-white, Zenith 
easily retained the top spot, registering 16% of the mar- 
ket, with RCA second at 14.85%, GE third with 10%, fol- 
lowed by Sears (9%) and Panasonic (6.65%). 

More new VCR's: Videocassette recorders continue to 
sport a profusion of new features. Both VHS and Beta 
models under major trade names now include high-speed 
scan in both directions for easy program-segment selec- 
tion (and for zipping through commercials) as well as 
noise-free stili-frame, frame- by-frame advance and slow 
motion, all controlled by a wired remote unit. Akat has 
introduced the first model with dual soundtracks— a two- 



speed VHS portable capable of carrying stereo audio or 
tracks in different languages. It also is the first model to 
be marketed in the United States that includes Dolby noise 
reduction. 

JVC has introduced what (at least for the moment) is 
the lightest and smallest portable VCR available in the 
United States. It weighs 11.4 pounds and can be back- 
packed and operated by a hand-held remote control. 
Meanwhile, the two longitudinal video recorders scheduled 
for introduction in the home market have been scratched. 
BASF's unit, which already was in the early stages of pilot 
production in a California plant, was officially withdrawn 
and the plant put up for sale. The Toshiba LVR will 
probably appear first as a data recorder, it may eventually 
surface again in its video form. At last June's Consumer 
Electronics Show, Toshiba showed a new version of the 
LVR that can record two programs simultaneously by 
using two tracks, but the official word is that until further 
notice, LVR is no longer a consumer product. 

Telecaptions: The experts may argue long and loud over 
what format for teletext and viewdata should be adopted 
in the United States, but one form of vertical-interval mes- 
sage transmission is off and running and an unqualified 
success. This is Telecaptioning, a special service for the 
hard of hearing, now permitted by the FCC. Captions are 
prepared by the National Captioning Institute for programs 
submittod by ABC, NBC, and PBS. CBS chose not to par- 
ticipate, arguing that teletext is better suited for cap- 
tioning. Sears Roebuck has the exclusive rights to sell 
decoders which enable TV sets to display the captions, as 
well as decoder-equipped TV sets, using IC's made by 
Texas Instruments. 

In the first 11 weeks of captioning, Sears sold 17,700 
caption decoders, an average of 1,600 per week, but at 
the end of the period (June 1), sales were running at the 
rate of 1,800 weekly — matching the current production 
rate — with a four-week order backlog. The decoders re- 
tail for $250, and a newly introduced 19-inch set with built- 
in decoder (in Sears' fall catalog) lists for $520. The de- 
coders have a three-position selector switch, and cap- 
tioning eventually will be offered in Spanish as well as 
English, along with "Infodata," a new information service 
being developed by National Captioning Institute. The In- 
stitute is supported by royalties from the sate of decoders. 

End of an era: The grand old name in automobile radio — 
Motorola — has discontinued manufacture of car sound 
equipment for the general public. The company sold its 
car radio business to Texstar, which will use the Motorola 
name in the U.S. and Canada, Motorola also sold its Italian 
subsidiary Autovox, which makes TV sets, audio and car 
radio equipment, to a Swiss company, ending its direct 
involvement in consumer electronics. Its former TV-radio 
operation is now Quasar Electronics, a subsidiary of Mat- 
sushita. Motorola will continue to manufacture automotive 
electronic equipment, including radios, for sale to car 
manufacturers. 

DAVID LACHENBRUCH 
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 









Facts from Fluke on low-cost DMM's 

Is this any way 
to treat a $139 multimeter? 



In the rough world of industrial 
electronics, even a precision test 
instrument can get treated like dirt. 
You need all the ruggedness and 
dependability you can get in a DMM 
for field use. 

You'll find these qualities and 
more in the Fluke line of low -cost 
DMM's. Our DMM's have been 
dropped from towers, stepped on, and 
run over by construction equipment. 
And they've survived because we never 
cut corners on quality, even on our 
lowest -priced, sis-function Model 
8022A TVoubleshooter at $139 U.S. 

Take a close look at a low-cost 
DMM from Fluke and you'll notice 
tough, lightweight construction that 
stands up to the hard knocks of life. 



Sturdy internal design and 
high-impact, flame-ret a rdant shells 
make these units practically 
indestructible. Right off the shelf, they 
meet or exceed severe military 
shock /vibration tests. 

Even our LCD's are protected by 
cast-tempered plastic shields. We use 
rugged CMOS LSI circuitry for 
integrity and 
endurance, and 
devote a large 
number of 




components to protection against 
overloading, accidental inputs and 
operator errors. 

We go to these lengths with all our 
low-cost DMM's to make sure they are 
genuine price/performance values. You 
can count on that. Because, that's 
what leadership is all about. 

For more facts on DMM reliability 
and where to find it, call toll free 
800-426-0361; use the coupon below; 
or contact your Fluke stocking 
distributor, sales office or 
representative. 



IflukeI 












THE US. AND NON- 
EUHOPEAN COUNTRIES: 

John Fluke Mfe. Co.. Inc. 
EO, Box 43210 MS #2B 
Mountbke Terrace, WA S8043 
(206) 774-24S1 
Telex: 152662 



IN EUROPE: 

Fhikc (Holland) B.V. 
P.O. Box 6053, WXH EB 

TiibtirE h The Netherlands 

{013)673973 

Telex: 52237 



■Hi CI Please send 8022 A specifications. 
J □ Please send all the facts on Fluke 
low -cost DMM's. 
□ Please have a salesman call. 



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CIRCLE 9 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 





Weather "color" radar to get 
distance control 

A new technique that enhances the value 
of airborne weather radar has been an- 
nounced by RCA. In 1977 that company 
pioneered airborne color radar, which 
gives an airplane pilot information not only 
of the presence and position of a storm, but 
of the strength of the precipitation. The col- 
ors vary from green, for lightest rainfall, to 
red, the most intense. 

Present radars give excellent information 
to the pilot trying to fly around a storm. But 
they can — and often do— underestimate 
the intensity of precipitation in its remoter 
areas. That is because signals from those 
areas are attenuated by the heavy rain in 
the nearer parts. Thus, if a radar display 
shows a yellow area behind a red one, it 
can mean either that the rain is lighter 
behind the intense storm or that the rain in 
the red area has so weakened the signal 
that intense precipitation behind the red 
area is being understated as yellow. 

REACT (Rain Echo Attenuation Compen- 
sation Technique) acts as a sort of auto- 
matic gain control that compensates for 
attenuation by water drops in the closer 
parts of the storm by increasing the gain of 
the radar receiver for the more distant 
areas by an amount equal to the two-way 
attenuation through the nearer ones. 

If the return signal is too weak to be seen 
even with REACT, the radar displays a 
blue, or "blind" area, which tells the pilot 
that the intensity of the storm in that area is 
unknown — it cannot be seen by the radar. 

50-inch Hat TV "tube" to arrive 
before 1990? 

The concept of a 30 X 40-inch (50-inch 
diagonal) flat TV display was described by 



RCA scientists to the Society of Informa- 
tion Display at their recent conference in 
San Diego, CA. The new picture-on-the- 
wall "tube" will have decided advantages 
in brightness and picture quality over pres- 
ent projection equipment of similar size 
and will require far less space. 

The display would consist of 40 modules, 
each 1 inch wide and 30 inches high. (Ex- 
perimental displays of up to five modules 
have been constructed, but no complete 
unit has yet been made.) As in earlier con- 
cepts of a flat TV tube (Radio-Electronics, 
March 1957, page 43) the electron gun pro- 
jects its beam parallel to the phosphor 
screen. To turn the beam (and control verti- 
cal scanning) one of a series of horizontal 
wires— normally held between 250 and 350 
volts positive — is switched negative (50 to 
100 volts). That repels the beam, "extract- 
ing" it and sending it at a right angle 
through mesh-like beam guides— main- 
tained at 40-80 volts positive— to the phos- 
phor screen, held at about 1300 volts. 
Vanes on each module scan the beam hori- 
zontally across the screen. Program modu- 
lation is applied through a series of vertical 
wires or electrodes. 

As to when the new tube (or display) will 
be perfected, an RCA spokesman says: 
"While we are optimistic, we are by no 
means certain as to when all the problems 
facing us will be overcome. It will probably 
be close to 1990 before such a flat panel 
display can be manufactured at a price the 
home consumer will be willing to pay." 

Pocket calculator includes two- 
hundred-year calendar. 

The Toshiba Time Capsule liquid crystal 
calculator, just announced, includes the 
standard four functions, square root, per- 



VIEWING FACEPLATE 
(PHOSPHOR SCREEN! 




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MODULATION 

ELECTRODES 



cent, memory and the rest. But in addition. 
it is programmed to give you the day of the 
week in which any date falls — 80 years in 
the past and 120 years in the future. That 
should be particularly useful to production 
planners who have to know on what days 
week-ends and holidays fall, sometimes 
farther in advance than available calendars 
show. 



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THE FLAT-PANEL TV DISPLAY would consist of 40 modules, each with ils own electron gun, beam 
guides, and modulation electrodes, fastened side-by-side to form a 40-inch-wide and 30-inch-high 
display. RCA scientists hope that the new "tube" will reach the market some lime before 1990. 



THE TOSHIBA LC-B40WA CALCULATOR can 
show, at one lime, the calendar for the month, 
with present date flashing, the lime down to the 
second, and the lime for which the alarm has 
been set. 



The little calculator also provides a digi- 
tal clock service and a 24-hour alarm that 
can be preset for two times in one day or be 
preprogrammed up to a month in advance. 

As a special feature, the Time Capsule 
can also show the entire calendar, a month 
at a time, with the present day flashing. The 
calculator measures 4.9 X 2.7 X 0.3 
inches. Suggested retail price is $59.95. 

Magnavox will make no claims 
on AM stereo broadcasters 

Magnavox Consumer Electronics Co. will 
not assert its AM Stereo broadcast patents 
against broadcasters or broadcast equip- 
ment manufacturers, says Magnavox presi- 
dent Meinken. However, "a reasonable 
license fee will be charged to receiver man- 
ufacturers." 

The Magnavox AM Stereo system was 
approved by the FCC early last April. The 
company points out that among the advan- 
tages of the system are its pilot tone, which 
can be used to switch the receiver from 
mono to stereo automatically, at the same 
time turning on a light that tells the listener 
the program is in stereo. The pilot tone can 
also carry a third channel of alphanumeric 
data, such as call letters or a weather 
alert. 

continued on page IS 



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NRI will train you at home 

to be an electronics professional 

in the growing world 

of communications. 

Learn to service, repair, and install everything from microwave antennas 
to two-way radios. . .from radar sets to TV transmitters. 



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Direction Finders, Loran 



No other home-study course 
gives you such complete, professional 
training in so many fields of com- 
munication. No other gives you the 
actual bench training with kits and 
demonstration units specially designed 
for learning. Only NRI gives you the 
thorough preparation and training 
you need to achieve professional 
competence in the wide world of 
communications. 

Learn at Home 
in Your Spare Time 

Learn at your own pace, right in 
your own home. There's no need to 
quit your job or tie up your evenings 




with night classes. No time or gas 
wasted traveling to school. . .NRI 
brings it all to you. You learn with 
NRI-pioneered "bite-size" lessons and 
proven, practical "power-on" training. 

Build Your Own 2 - Meter, 

Digitally Synthesized 

VHF Transceiver or 

40-Channei CB 

NRI training is "hands-on" 
training. You get honest bench ex- 
perience as you build and test this 
industrial-quality two-way radio and 
power supply. You reinforce theory les- 
sons as you induce and correct faults, 
study individual circuits and learn 
how they interface with others. Or, at 
your option, you can train with a full 
forty-channel mobile CB and base- 
station power supply converter. 

You also build and keep for use 
in your work a transistorized volt-ohm 



meter and digital CMOS frequency 
counter. NRI even gives you special 
lessons to get your Amateur License so 




CB Radio 



Mobile Riidio 




Aircraft Guidance ft 
Landing Systems 





AM ft FM Broadcasting 




you can go on the air with your VHF 
transceiver. 

FCC license 
or Full Refund 

In all, you get 48 lessons, 9 
special reference texts, and 10 training 
kits ... the training you need to become 
a professional. And NRI includes train- 
ing for the required FCC radiotele- 
phone license examination. You pass 
or your tuition will be refunded in 
full. This money-back agreement is 
valid for six months after the com- 
pletion of your course. 

Free Catalog, 
No Salesman Vm Call 

NRI's free, 100-page full-color 
catalog shows all the equipment you 
get, describes each lesson and kit in 
detail, tells more about the many 
specialized fields we train you for. It 
includes all facts on other interesting 
areas like TV and audio servicing or 
digital computer electronics. Mail the 
postage-paid card and see how we can 
make you a pro. 

If the card has been removed, 
write to: 



NRI Schools 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Ave. 
Washington, D.C. 20016 




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Digital IG Probe 8* Logic Pulser 

PRB- 1 DIGITAL LOGIC PROBE 
Compatible with DTL.TTLCMOS, MOS and Microprocessors using a 4 to 15V power supply. Thresholds automatically 
programmed. Automatic resetting memory. No adjustment required. Visual indication of logic levels, using LED's to 
show high, low. bad level or open circuit logic and pulses. Highly sophisticated, shirt pocket portable (protective tip 
cap and removable coll cord). 

Automatic threshold resetting ■ DE to > 60 MHZ 
Compatible withall logic families 4-15 VDC • lONsec.pulseresponse 
SupplyOV.P.tQ i 70 VDC • 120 K fi impedance 
No switches/no calibration • Automatic pulse stretching to 60 Msec. 
Open circuit detection • Automatic resetting memory 
Range extended to 16-26 VDC with optional PA-1 adapter 
PLS-1 LOGIC PULSER 
The PLS-1 logic pulser will superimpose a dynamic pulse train ( 20 pps) or a single pulse onto the circuit node under 
test. There is no need to unsolder pins or cutprinted-circuit traces even when these nodes are being clamped by digital 
outputs. 

PLS-1 Is a multi-mode, high current pulse generator packaged inahand-held shirt pocket portable lnstrument.lt can 
source or sink sufficient current to force saturated output transistors in digital circuits Into the opposite logic state. 
Signal Injection is by means of a pushbutton switch near the probe tip. When the button is depressed, a single 
high-going or low -going pulse of 2^ sec wide is delivered to the circuit node under test. Pulse polarity Is automatic: 
high nodes are pulsed low and low nodesare pulsed high Holding the button down delivers a series ofpulses of 20 pps 
to the circuit under test. 

High input impedance( off state) 1 megohm • Multl mode-single pulses or pulse trains 
Low output impedance (active state) 2 ohms • Automatic polarity sensing 

Outputpulse width 2 ^sec nominal • Automatic current limiting; 7 amps nominal 
Input over voltage protection ~ 60 volts • Automatically programmed output level 
Finger tip push button actuated • Circuit powered 
Power lead reversal protection • No adjustments required 
Mulli- tarn i ly RTL. DT L, TTL . CMOS, MOS an d Microprocessors. 
PRB 1 DIGITAL LOGIC PROBE 436.98 PA 1 HIGH VOLTAGE ADAPTER $8.B0 

PCI POWERCORD.AlllgatorClips $4.98 PT2 REPLACEMENT PROBE TIP( 2) 41.80 



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LOGIC PULSER 



OK Machine & Tool Corporation 

3455 Conner St., Bronx,N.Y. 10475 U.S.A. 
Tel.(212) 994-6600 Telex 125091 

'Minimum billings 425.00. add shipping charge 42 00 
New York State residents add applicable tax 



CIRCLE 10 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



continued from page 7 



TV sales off in early 1980— 
home VTR sales on the rise 

Sales of color television sets to retailers 
in the first 17 weeks of 1980 were 
2,811,307, reports the Electric Industries 
Association. That Is a decline of 5.7 percent 
from the 2,980,951 sets sold during the 
same period in 1979. Black-and-white 
sales in the same period were 1,593,733, a 
decrease of 12.4 percent from the 
1,818,667 units sold in the first 17 weeks of 
last year. 

Home video-tape recorder sales to retail- 
ers jumped 57.1 percent over last year— 
189,550 units as against 120,674 sold in 
the first 17 weeks of 1979. 

New energy-saving light bulb 

North American Philips Lighting Corpo- 
ration has developed a new type of light 
bulb that, when compared with the conven- 
tional incandescent lamp, will last 7% times 
longer and use 70% less energy. The new 
lamp is an 1 1-watt, low-pressure mercury 
lamp of the fluorescent type, and is similar 
in size and shape to conventional bulbs; it 
is designed to fit standard light sockets. 

Low-pressure sodium lamps first ap- 
peared in Europe, during the 1930's and 
were about as efficient as mercury vapor 
lamps, which produced 40 lumens per watt. 
The new lamps achieve a fourfold increase 
in efficiency by integrating the develop- 
ment of rare earth fluorescent powders and 
radical miniaturization. The light in the new 
bulbs Is generated by converting ultraviolet 
radiation to visible light by means of using 
fluorescent powder on the inner surface of 
the bulb wall. The new rare earth powders 
also opened up the possibility of combining 
good color-rendering qualities with high 
efficiency. 

The new tamp is expected to replace 
standard light bulbs for both indoor and 
outdoor use in private homes, apartments, 
garages, commercial buildings, and stores. 
It has low glare, provides excellent con- 
trast, and is not affected by changes in the 
surrounding temperature. It will be avail- 
able in 240- and 120-volt versions. 120 
volts Is the predominant range in the 
United States and it will be available in the 
U.S. market early in 1981. 

A comparison between the cost, length 
of life, and performance of a standard 60- 
watt soft-white incandescent lamp and one 
of the new SL-18 tamps shows the follow- 
ing: The incandescent lamp has a life 
expectancy of 1000 hours, while the new 
lamp has a life expectancy of 7500 hrs. The 
new lamp costs $12.00. To obtain the 
equivalent life span, Th incandescent 
lamps are required at a cost of $.85 each, 
for a total cost of $6.37. During the 7500- 
hour life span, the incandescents will con- 
sume 450 kilowatt-hours while the SL-18 
consumes 135 kilowatt- hours. The savings 




THE NEW SL-1S is close in size to the standard 
60-watt incandescent lamp, and is designed to 
fit standard light sockets. It will last 77> times 
longer than the oldstyle bulb and consume 70% 
less energy, reflecting a substantial decrease in 
the user's electric bills. 



in the user's electric bill depend upon the 
unit cost per kilowatt-hour; at 24 per kilo- 
watt-hour, the incandescents cost $9.00, 
the SL-18 $2.70 ($6.30 saved}. At 4$ per 
kilowatt-hour, the incandescents cost 
$13.50, the SL-18 $4.05 ($9.45 saved). At 
6$ per kilowatt-hour, the incandescents 
cost $27.00, the SL-18 $8.10 ($18.90 
saved); and the savings increase where the 
unit price for energy is higher. 

Worldwide, the lamps will immediately be 
available in four wattages: 11 watts, 13 
watts, 18 watts, and 25 watts, as direct 
replacements for the standard 40-watt, 60- 
watt, 75-watt, and 100-watt incandescent 
lamps most widely used today. There can 
be no doubt that the reduced energy con- 
sumption, reflected in lower electric bills, 
and the longer life of the new bulb will more 
than offset the higher initial price. 

Technologies of the '80's may alter 
our lifestyles 

Westinghouse scientist George F. Mech- 
lin described— at a Pittsburgh press brief- 
ing on "Technologies of the '80's: Myths, 
Facts, and Promises"— seven technologies 
that will have a significant impact on Amer- 
ican society in the next decade. At the 
same time, he warned against the "myth" 
that any one of them— or all of them com- 
bined—can present a "quick fix" for our 
present difficulties. 

The seven technologies are: 
Lasers, already handling fantastic tasks, 
and beginning to be used to harden metals, 
read video discs, and separate uranium. 
Optics, now able to transmit a million tele- 
phone calls for only .001 watt of laser light, 
and which will make information-process- 
ing a billion times faster than is remotely 



possible with present technology. 
Microprocessors, which will invade every 
field of industry, transform office proce- 
dures, and have a bigger impact on our 
home life than the changes brought about 
by TV. 

Robotics, to do the dangerous, heavy, hot, 
and monotonous jobs now handled by 
human beings. 

Solar power, use of which will increase as 
and when it becomes economical. 
Coal conversion, into gas, oil, gasoline or 
methanol, generating power without the 
present pollution. 

Fuel cells, which will be developed Intc 
compact, efficient, and non-polluting ener- 
gy sources. 

But, Dr. Mechlin warned, the very prom- 
ise of technology has ted to several overop- 
timistic myths that will lead to disillusion- 
ment. Most dangerous of those is the Myth 
of the Quick Fix, which leads many to hope 
for a near-immediate solution of many 
present difficulties — particularly of the en- 
ergy problem. 

"An alarming mistake," stated Dr. Mech- 
lin, firmly. "No technical innovation has 
ever taken hold immediately. Even if a new 
energy source were discovered tomorrow, 
it would be unlikely to go 'on line' until the 
next century." 

World's longest single-span fiber' 
optic video link 

The longest single-span fiber-optic video 
service in use today was completed last 
April by Times Fiber Communications and 
is part of Vision Cable's system serving 
20,000 cable-TV subscribers in 13 New 
Jersey communities. The new 2.4-kllome- 
ter link, that was completed in only six 
days, uses no repeaters and carries five 
channels per-fiber with studio-transmis- 
sion quality, demonstrating the practicality 
of Fiber-optic communications. 

It consists of three-conductor optical ca- 
ble and electro -optica I equipment manu- 
factured by Times. One fiber-conductor 
serves as a final leg for televised sports 
events presented at Madison Square Gar- 
den and Nassau Coliseum. The fiber carries 
the signals from microwave receivers at the 
headend to the studio for signal-process- 
ing and programming. A second fiber re- 
turns the program material, along with sat- 
ellite signals and other studio-originated 
channels, to the headend for distribution to 
the subscribers. A third fiber will be used 
for future programming. 

The system is Frequency-modulated and 
exceeded contract performance specifica- 
tions, with a measured 53-58 dB signal-to- 
noise level and no visible degradation of 
the picture. Vision Cable supplies 130,000 
subscribers in the east and north, and 
additional fiber-optic links are planned for 
the future. 



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dc voltage 
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PUBLISHER'S LETTER 

Home-Study Schools Cancelled 
Gl Bill Not Funded 

That could be a minor headline in your local newspaper in the not- 
too-distant future. Actions now taking place in Congress could make 
that headline happen. 

Radio-Electronics carries a good deal of Home-Study school adver- 
tising. It is important to our readers. So when an action occurs that 
may reduce its availability to many of our readers, we feel it is im- 
portant enough to tell you the facts. 

Here's the story. On June 3, 1980, the Veterans Affairs Committee 
reported to the budget committee of the House of Representatives 
and recommended that home-study and flight school instructions no 
longer be funded through the Veterans Administration. If that recom- 
mendation is passed by Congress, Veterans will no longer receive 
this important benefit. 

Why are we so concerned? After all the veteran could still attend a 
resident school and have his education paid for. There are several 
practical problems with this answer. 

1 . There may be no resident school in the city where the veteran 
lives. 

2. Even if there is a resident school in the city where he lives, it 
may not be convenient for him to reach it after work. 

3. Some resident schools do not offer the best possible training, 
and if a veteran can only attend a resident school, his freedom 
of choice is severely limited. 

4. Correspondence schools permit the student to learn at his 
own pace and fit his education into his own schedule. Thou- 
sands of veterans have taken home-study school courses and 
made those courses an important part of their career training. 
Personally, I got started in electronics by taking a De Forest 
Technical Training course while I was in the US Army, I finished 
it after being discharged. 

5. Home-Study schools are much less expensive than the 
equivalent resident school. Resident schools can cost from 
two to five times as much — so eliminating home-study can 
actually increase the cost of providing benefits. 

Radio-Electronics has a vested interest in not losing the advertising 
dollars we earn each year from correspondence school advertising. 
But we have an even greater interest in the future of our country and 
the careers of its veterans. If you agree with our viewpoint, it is urgent 
that you contact your Congressmen immediately. Let them know that 
you do not want them to take this extremely important benefit away. 
Write a letter, a mailgram, or send a telegram right now. Tomorrow 
could be too late. 



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LARRY STECKLER 

Publisher 



Electronics 

Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967) founder 
M. Harvey Gernsback, editor-in-chief 
Larry Steckler, GET. publisher 
Arthur Kleiman, managing editor 
Josef Bernard, K2HUF, 
technical editor 

Jack Darr, CET service editor 
Leonard Feldman 

contributing high-fidelity editor 

Karl Savon, semiconductor editor 
Herb Freidman, communications editor 
David Lachenbruch, contributing editor 
Earl "Doc" Savage, K4SDS, hobby editor 
Ruby Yee, production manager 

Robert A. W. Lowndes, production 

associate 
Marie J. Stolfi, production assistant 
Gabriele Margules, circulation director 

Arline R. Fish man, 
advertising coordinator 

Cover design by Louis G. Rubsamen 

Cover photo by Robert Lewis 

Radio Electronics is indexed in Applied 
Science & Technology Index and Readers 
Guide to Periodical Literature, 



Gernsback Publications, !rtc. 

200 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10003 

(212) 777-6400 

President: M. Harvey Gernsback 

Vice President: Larry Steckler 

Secretary/ Treasurer: Carol A. Gernsback 

ADVERTISING SALES 

Larry Steckler 
Publisher 

EAST 

Stanley Levitan 
Radio-Electronics 
200 Park Ave. South 
New York. NY 10003 

(21 2) 777-6400 

MIDWEST/Texas/Arkansas/Okla. 

Ralph Bergen 

The Ralph Bergen Co. 

540 Frontage Road— Suite 361 -A 

Northfield, Illinois 60093 

(312) 446-1444 

PACIFIC COAST 
Mountain States 

Jay Ei sen berg 

J.E. Publishers Representative Co.. 

8732 Sunset Blvd., 

4th Floor. 

Los Angeles, CA 90069 

(213) 659-3810 

San Francisco. CA 94124 
[4151 864-3252 

SOUTHEAST 

Paul McGinnis 

Paul McGinnis Company 
60 East 42nd Street 
New York, N.Y. 10017 
(212) 490-1021 




Sabtronics gives you DMM and Frequency 

Counter kits with more features, better 

performance and incredibly lower prices 



Model 201 OA Bench/ Portable DMM: 

$79.95 kit 

Features: Wi digit LED display • 31 measurement 
ranges 6-Functions • 0.1% Basic DCV accuracy • 
Touch-and-hold capability • Hi-Lo Ohms • 40 Hz 
to 40 kHz frequency response • Auto Zero, Auto 
Polarity • Overload protected • Overrange indi- 
cation • Single chip LSI logic • Laser-trimmer re- 
sistor network and ulrra-staole band-gap reference 
for berter long term accuracy • Built-in NiCd bat- 
tery charging circuit. 

Brief Specifications: DC Volts lOOjiVto 1000V 
in 5 ranges; AC \blrs lOOuV to 1000V in 5 ranges; 
DC Current O.lfiA to lOA in 6 ranges; AC Cur- 
rent 0.1 jaA to 10A in 6 ranges; Resistance 0.1 to 
20MQ in 6 ranges; Diode Test Currenr 0.1 /jA to 
1mA in 3 ranges; Input impedance, lOMSJon AC 
and DC volts; Power requirement, 4-5 to 6.5 
VDC (4 "C" cells) or optional AC adapter/ 
charger. 




$79.95 




Model 2015A Bench/ Port able DMM: 
$89.95 kit 

Same features arid specifications as Model 20 10 A 
except with large, 0.5" LCD VA digit display. 

Optional Accessories: 

#AC-U5, AC adapter/charger $7-95 
#THP-20, Touch and Hold Probe $19.95 
#N B- 1 20 N iCd Battery Set $18.75 



$89.95 



Model 8610A Frequency Counter: 

$99.95 kit 

Features: 8-Uigit LED display • 10 Hz to 600 MHz 
guaranteed frequency range (5 Hz to 750 MHz 
typical) * 3 Gate times • 10 MHz TCXO Time 
base • Auto decimal point • Overflow indicator • 
Leading zero blanking • Resolution to 0.1 Hz • 
Built-in charging circuit forNiCd batteries. 
Brief Specifications: Freouency Range, switch 
selectable, 10 MHz, 100MHz, 600 MHz . Sensitiv- 
ity, ± lOmV RMS to 100 MHz, ±50mV RMS, 
100 MHz to 450 MHz; 90mV RMS 450 MHz to 
600 MHz • Impedance, 1 Mfi, 10 MHz and 100 
MHz ranges; 50Q, 600 MHz range • Gate time 
(switch selectable) 0.1 sec, 1 sec, 10 sec • Temper- 
ature stability, 0.1 ppm/°C • Ageing rate < ± 5 
ppm/yr • Accuracy, 1 ppm or 0.0001% • Input 

Erotection, 150V RMS to 10 kHz (declining with 
equency) • Power Requirement, 4-5 to 6.5V DC 
ft 300mA (4 "C" cells) or optional AC adapter/ 
arger (7.5 to 9V DC @ 300mA). 

Ordering information 

USA-Add $6.00 per kit for shipping & han- 
dling. Personal checks have to clear before 
goods are shipped (allow 2-3 weeks). For faster 
delivery send cashiers check or money order. 
10% deposit for C.O.D. orders. Florida resi- 
dents add .sales tax. OVERSEAS-Add $25.00 
per kit for airmail delivery. Payment by bank 
draft in U.S. funds. 



Also available Model 81 10 A, same 

as 86 10 A except inaximu m 
frequency is 100MHz and without 
battery charging circuit; $69.95 kit 




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(813) 623-2631 



INTERNATIONAL INC 

5709 N. 50th Street, MIS 35. Tampa, FL 33610 

In Canada contact: Kumar & Co. 

Misslssauga, Ont. Canada L5L 1H2 



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17 



Learning 

electronics 
is no picnic 




At any level it 
takes work and 
a few sacrifices. 
But with CIE, 
it's worth it. 









Whoever said, "The best things in life 
are free" was writing a song, not living 
a life. Life is not just a bowl of cherries, 
and we all know it. 

You fight for what you get. You get 
what you fight for. If you want a 
thorough, practical, working knowl- 
edge of electronics, come to CIE. 

You can learn electronics at home 
by spending just 12 hard-working 
hours a week, two hours a day. Or, 
would you rather go bowling? Your 
success is up to you. 

At CIE, you earn your diploma. It 
is not handed to you simply for putting 
in hours. But the hours you do put in 
will be on your schedule, not ours. 
You don't have to go to a classroom. 
The classroom comes to you. 

Why electronics training? 

Today the world depends on 
technology. And the "brain" of 
technology is electronics. Every year, 
companies the world over are finding 
new ways to apply the wonders of 
electronics to control and program 
manufacturing, processing... even to 
create new leisure-time products and 
services. And the more electronics 
applications there are, the greater the 
need will be for trained technicians to 
keep sophisticated equipment finely 
tuned and operating efficiently. That 
means career opportunities in the 
eighties and beyond. 

Which CIE training fits you? 

Beginner? Intermediate? Advanced? 
CIE home study courses are designed 
for ambitious people at all entry 
levels. People who may have: 

1 . No previous electronics knowledge, 
but do have an interest in it; 

2. Some basic knowledge or experience 
in electronics; 

3. In-depth working experience or 
prior training in electronics. 

You can start where you fit and fit 
where you start, then go on from there 
to your Diploma, FCC License and 
career. 

Many people can be taught 
electronics. 

There is no mystery to learning elec- 
tronics. At CIE you simply start with 
what you know and build on it to 
develop the knowledge and techniques 
that make you a specialist. Thousands 
of CIE graduates have learned to 
master the simple principles of elec- 
tronics and operate or maintain even 
the most sophisticated electronics 
equipment. 

CIE specializes exclusively in 
electronics. 

Why CIE? CIE is the largest 
independent home study school that 
specializes exclusively in electronics. 
Nothing else. CIE has the electronics 
course that's right for you. 

Learning electronics is a lot more 
than memorizing a laundry list of 



facts about circuits and transistors. 
Electronics is interesting! It is based 
on recent developments in the industry. 
It's built on ideas. So, look for a 
program that starts with ideas and 
builds on them. Look to CIE. 

Programmed learning. 

That's exactly what happens with 
CIE's Auto-Programmed® Lessons. 
Each lesson uses famous ' 'programmed 
learning" methods to teach you 
important principles. You explore 
them, master them completely, before 
you start to apply them. You 
thoroughly understand each step 
before you go on to the next. You 
learn at your own pace. 

And, beyond theory, some courses 
come fully equipped with electronics 
gear (the things you see in technical 
magazines) to actually let you perform 
hundreds of checking, testing, and 
analyzing projects. 

Experienced specialists work 
closely with you. 

Even though you study at home, 
you are not alone! Each time you 
return a completed lesson, you can be 
sure it will be reviewed, graded and 
returned with appropriate 
instructional help. When you need 
additional individual help, you get it 
fast and in writing from the faculty 
technical specialist best qualified to 



answer your question in terms you can 
understand. 

CIE prepares you for your FCC 
License. 

For some jobs in electronics, you 
must have a Federal Communications 
Commission (FCC) License. For 
others, some employers tend to 
consider your license a mark in your 
favor. Either way, your license is 
government-certified proof of your 
knowledge and skills. It sets you apart 
from the crowd. 

More than half of CIE's courses 
prepare you to pass the government- 
administered exam. In continuing 
surveys, nearly 4 out of 5 graduates 
who take the exam get their licenses! 
You can be among the winners. 

Today is the day. Send now. 

Fill in and return the postage- free 
card attached. If some other ambitious 
person has removed it, cut out and 
mail the coupon. You'll get a FREE 
school catalog plus complete 
information on independent home 
study. For your convenience, we'll try 
to have a CIE representative contact 
you to answer any questions you may 
have. 

Mail the card or the coupon or write 
CIE (mentioning name and date of 
this magazine) at: 1776 East 17th 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114. 




Patlcrn shown on 
oscilloscope screen 
is simulated. 



CIE 



Cleveland Institute of Electronics, Inc. 

1776 Ease 17th Street. Cleveland. Ohio 44-114 
Accredited Member National Home Study Council 



D YES ... I want to learn from the specialists in electronics — CIE. Send me my FREE 
CIE school catalog plus my FREE package of home study information. RE-95 

Print Name 

Address Apt 

City 

State 

Age . 



_Zip_ 



.Phone (area code)_ 



Check box for G.l. Bill bulletin on Educational Benefits: n Veteran 

MAIL TODAYI 



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New equipment overflows malls of Cable TV convention 

As expected, the 1980 National Cable TV association conven- 
tion served up a cornucopia of new satellite equipment. The 
CATV industry has led the way skyward in video program- 
ming — and this year's record-breaking gathering indicated that 
the boom in cable/satellite networking will continue. Not only 
were there numerous announcements about new programs, but 
we also saw dozens of new products, including a number of 
low-priced receivers that seemed more attuned to amateur use 
for at-home reception. 

One item that generated considerable interest (along with 
jibes about its creating a need for satellite-dish termite extermi- 
nators) was a $750 1 2-foot antenna built on redwood strips; the 
antenna kit includes a spherical aluminum screen reflector on 
the wood struts. Although a working model of the device was 
not on display, its builders say it does pick up a good signal; it's 
made by Vidiark Electronics, Box 9363, 3765 South Third 
Street, Memphis, TN 38)09. 

Small dishes were the order of the day at the NCTA conven- 
tion, with such companies as Compact Video Sales (1100 West 
Chestnut St., Burbank, CA 91506) and familiar giants such as 
Gardiner Communications, Scientific-Atlanta, and Hughes de- 
monstrating dishes under five-meters across. Hughes also intro- 
duced a device that can be added on to an existing antenna to 
improve its reception capability. Prodeiin (PO Box 131, Hights- 
town, NJ 08520) unveiled its new segmented fiberglass antenna, 
which is now available in a 10-foot model for $2,450. Each of 
the eight petals of the 10- foot model weighs under 15 pounds, 
which could pave the way for more affordable tracking sys- 
tems. 

Lindsay introduced a 12-foot TV receive-only earth terminal 
that uses high- tensile aluminum-petal construction. (Lindsay 
Specialty Products, 50 Mary Street West, Lindsay, Ontario, 
Canada). U.S. Tower Company (PO Drawer S, Alton, OK 
74331) demonstrated its new 3.3-meter dish, priced at $2,275 
including all mounting hardware. 

In all we counted well over a dozen dishes on display in the 
walkways and parking lots surrounding the convention center. 
Inside the convention hall there were scores of satellite video 
receivers on display. Rockwell International's Collins Transmis- 
sion System division showed three new models of its SVR-4 
satellite video receivers, with low carrier-to-noise ratios (such as 
8.0 dB for the SBR-0A-1 receiver). Other electronic giants, 
such as Harris Corp., demonstrated new LNA's and video 
receivers. 

Programming galore 

Along with the stunning new hardware at the Cable TV con- 
vention came a wave of new program announcements. The most 
overwhelming was the news about Premiere, a new all- movie 
pay-TV service due to begin operations in January 1981. Pre- 
miere is a joint venture of four major Hollywood studios (Co- 
lumbia Pictures, MCA-Universal, Paramount Pictures, and 
20th Century Fox) and Getty Oil Co., but it will also use films 
from other studios and producers. Premiere's partners plan to 
offer movies on their own channel at least nine months before 
they are permitted to be shown on such existing pay-TV circuits 
as Home Box Office or Showtime — a plan that has prompted 
other companies to charge that the whole Premiere concept is 
illegal, a violation of antitrust laws. 

Whatever the outcome of those legal snarls, the Premiere plan 
itself is massive. Not only would there be about 1 5 new movies 



per month offered via the channel, but they would be bounced 
on at least two and maybe three satellites. Premiere has bought a 
transponder on Satcom I from Satellite Program Network; that 
circuit will probably be used for the transmissions to the western 
time zones. The company has access to a Comstar D2 transpon- 
der and to a Westar III circuit, one of which will be used for 
East -Coast transmissions or all-day service. Since Getty Oil is a 
major backer of the all-sports ESPN channel, some of Pre- 
miere's programming may share a transponder with the over- 
flow ESPN service (the main ESPN fulltime network remains 
aboard Satcom 1). 

In addition to the Premiere bombshell, the cable TV conven- 
tion poured forth dozens of other program announcements. 
Home Box Office will start a second pay-TV channel called 
Cinemax, an all-movie channel which will include some foreign 
movies and older movies. CBS has formed a cable-TV program- 
ming subsidiary that will send shows via Westar III to cable 
systems; the CBS Cable line-up will include new programs nev- 
er used on the regular CBS broadcast network. Black Entertain- 
ment Television will carry an expanded line-up of college fool- 
ball and basketball games starting this fall, and GalaVision, the 
Spanish- language pay-TV network, has already started its new 
coverage of professional boxing matches. 

In addition, most of the existing program providers using 
satellites today offered previews of the additional shows they'll 
carry during the coming year. There will be a variety of special 
interest shows, ranging from a Ralph Nader consumer-affairs 
program on Showtime to a show called "Women" (delivered via 
a new color-slow -scan video process) on Satellite Program Net- 
work. 

Westar adds more signals 

There are at least ten new program services traveling aboard 
the Westar satellites this summer — including the raw program 
material being beamed into the brand new Cable News Network 
headquarters in Atlanta. CNN, the latest brainchild of TV mav- 
erick Ted Turner, is the 24-hour-a-day news service that began 
in June. (After a long legal fight with RCA Americom, CNN 
has won temporary authority — at least through December — to 
use Satcom I Transponder # 1 4 to send its all-news program- 
ming to cable-TV systems.) However, the programming to 
Atlanta from CNN bureaus around the country travels via 
Westar III Transponder 1 1. Meanwhile Western Union has also 
lined up a number of other customers, including Hughes TV 
Network with its heavy dose of sports and special programs 
(Westar HI, Transponder 2) and Spanish International Net- 
work (Westar III, Transponder 9). Also on Westar III are CBS 
{Transponder 6) and ABC (Transponder 10). Satellite Commu- 
nications Network is on Westar I, Transponder 4. 

Around the satellite circuit 

Comsat has formalized its plans for a direct-to-home satellite 
service; it has created a subsidiary called Satellite Television 
Corp. that will buy and develop programming for the proposed 
high-power feed. Comsat is still looking for a retail partner to 
sell and install the necessary small-dish receivers. And the com- 
pany recently indicated that it is pushing back its target date 
from 1983 into 1984. Many skeptics believe that it will take 
much longer than that for the FCC to approve such a complicat- 
ed venture. 

GARY H. ARLEN 



Sony Wrote the Book on VTR— 
Now It's on Tape! 



Until now, learning about video recorders meant poring over 
very technical textbooks— if you could find them. Or enrolling in a 
highly specialized school. 

But with the new Sony Basic Video Recording Course, you can 
easily learn everything about video tape recording using video itself 
as a teaching tool. At your own pace, whenever it's most convenient 
for you. The Sony course clearly demonstrates the theory, operation 
and characteristics of every major VTR unit. Including EIAJ, 
Betamax, VHS, U-matic , Quad and SMPTE Types A, B and C. 

You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of magnetism to 
the sophisdcated processes used in color recording. And at the end of 
each lesson you'll find a thorough self-review test, so you can be sure 
you fully understand each subject before going on to the next one. 

You can order a preview tape, individual tapes on a specific 
subject or the entire course in Betamax or U-matic format. 



COURSE CONTENTS: 

The course consists of eight color video cassettes ranging from 
23 to 30 minutes in length and eight supplementary booklets: 
1. ELEMENTS OF MAGNETIC RECORDING, 2. VIDEO 
RECORDING, 3. SCANNER SYSTEMS, 4. TAPE FORMATS, 
5. TAPE TRANSPORTS, 6. SCANNER SERVOS, 7. LUMI- 
NANCE PROCESSING, 8. COLOR SIGNAL PROCESSING. 

The Sony Basic Video Recording Course will make you an 
expert on video tape recording. Whether you already own, sell or 
service video equipment or just have an electronics background and 
want to understand how it really works — this course is what you've 
been waiting for. 

It would be hard to find a better teacher than the leader in the 
field— SONY. 




Sony Basic Video JKecqrdjng Course 



I'm interested in learning VTR technology. Please send me: 

BASIC VIDEO RECORDING COURSE 

(8 cassettes/booklets, customized album and binder supplied) 

Betamax □ 1 hr. □ 2 hr $395.00 

(Reg. price $503,00) 

V*" U-matic □ $487.00 

These prices available for limited time only. (Reg, price $623. 00) 
INDIVIDUAL LESSONS 
(Price per cassette/ booklet) 

Betamax U 1 hr. D 2 hi $6] .00 

V*" U-matic □ $76,00 

Circle lesson § and indicate quantity desired in space provided. 

1 2 3, 4 5_ 6 , 7 8 

PREVIEW TAPE 

Betamax D I hr. D 2 hr. $12,50 

U-matic □ $28.00 

Add appropriate sales tax and $1.75 per cassette ($14.00 for complete course) 
for handling and shipping. (UPS in continental U.S. If outside, add $15.00 for 
export charges, plus collect freight charges; special handling is extra.) Make 
check or money order payable to Sony Corporation. If charging to your Sony 

accouni, fill in number and enclose purchase order 

For phone orders, call: (213) 537-4300 Ext. 474 or visit your local Sony dealer. 



We honor VISA or Master Charge via phone or mail. 

Name 

Address 



City 

Zip Code_ 



_Siate_ 



. Phone #_ 



VISA/Master Charge Number 



Exp. Date 



Signature 

Mail to: Sony Video Products Company, Tape Production Services, 700 W, 
Artesia Blvd., Compton, California 90220. 

NOTE: Tapes returnable if defective when received. Please allow two weeks 
for delivery. 

SONY VIDEO 
COMMUNICATIONS 

Sony, Betamax and U-nulkart rtgbtfrcd liadcmajfci of [hi Sony Corp. 



CIRCLE 33 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



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Heath/Zenith Instruments: 




Heath/Zenith instruments are 
professional units that give you 
good value for your money. 
A wide selection to let you choose 
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need — without paying for a lot 
of bells and whistles you don't. 
Manufactured to strict Heath/ 
Zenith standards. Inspected at 
every step of assembly to assure 
performance to specifications. 
They're built to last; built to give 



you reliable service. 61 U.S. and 
Canadian locations offer service, 
should it ever be necessary. 
Whether you need a test instru- 
ment for electronics service 
work, manufacturing and design, 
or serious hobby applications, 
Heath/Zenith instruments are 
a good choice. The selection 
offered here is just part of our 
total instrument line. Order 
TOLL FREE 800-253-0570. 




New 10 Hz-225 MHz 
Frequency Counter 




^59 



95 



• 10 mV typical sensitivity 

• Single input gives entire range 

• Crystal-controlled time base 

• 0.1,1.0 second dual time gates 

• Full voltage protection 

• E a By-to-read 8 -Digit display 

• 3.38" H X 7.25" Wx9.Q"D 

SM-2410 , 159.95 

($3.30 shipping & handling] 

SMA-2400-1, Antenna 9.95 

($1.60 shipping & handling) 



NEW 



New 5 Hz-513 MHa 
Frequency Counter 




$ 299 



• Ideal for 2- way UHF work 

• Ovenized, high- stability, 
crystal timebase 

• 8-Digit resolution 

• 10 mV typical sensitivity 

• .01, .1,1, 10 second gate times 
to fit your needs 

• Trigger level control 

• Frequency ratio function 

• Period function 

• 4.26" Hi 10.0" Wi 13.0" D 

SM-2420 299.9S 

($2.75 shipping &, handling) 

SMA-2400-1, Antenna 9.9S 

($1.60 shipping &, handling! 



LU 
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Hand-held Multimeter gives 0.1% accuracy 

*129 9S 

• Measure voltage , c urre nt, resistance 

• Easy-to-read Liquid Crystal Display 

• Five DC voltage ranges — ZOOmV-lOOOV 

• Five AC voltage ranges — 200mV-7SOVrms 

• Four DC current ranges — 2mA-2000mA 

• Four AC current ranges — 2 mA -3000 mA 

• Six resistance ranges — 200 H-20MO 

• Uses one 9V battery or 120/240 VAC 

• 2.0"Hx3.5"Wx7.5"D 

SM-2215 129.95 

($1.75 shipping &, handling) 

IMA-2215-1 Leather Carrying Case . . 14.95 

($1.60 shipping &. handling) 

PS -23 50 120VAC Battery Eliminator . . 4.95 

($1.60 shipping &. handling) 

PS -24 50 240VAC Battery Eliminator . . 14.95 

($1,60 shipping &. handling) 




New Hand- held 
5 1 a MHz Counter 




»179 95 

• Easy-to-read 7- digit display 
■ 10 mV typical sensitivity 

• Includes nickel-cadmium batteries 

• AC or battery operation 

• .1 second and 1 second time gates 
with automatic decimal point 
placement 

• Leading zero blanking 

• Crystal-controlled time base 

• Full voltage protection 

• 2.0" H x. 3.38" W X 8 .25" D 

SM-2400 179.95 

(51.90 shipping & handling) 
PS-2404 120V Battery Eliminator/ 

Charger (required) 4.95 

($1.60 shipping &, handling) 
PS-2405 240V Battery Eliminator/ 

Charger (required) 12.95 

($1.60 shipping & handling) 
SMA-2400 -1 Telescopic 

Antenna 9.95 

I $1.60 shipping & handling) 



24 



professional quality; excellent value 



Gener al-purp o&e 
Power Supply 




s 210 



00 



• Supplies B +, C — and filament 
voltages 

• 0-401) V III . output at 0-100 m A 
continuous (125 in A intermittent) 

• Output variation less than 1% from 
no load to full load for 100-400VDC 

• Ripple less than 10 mVrms 

• Output impedance 10 fl from 
l)t:-l MHz 

• C- Voltage to -100 VOC at 1mA 

• Filament voltage 6.3 VAC at 4 amp. 

• S.5"Hi 13.38" WxllJSS'D 

SP-2717 210.00 

($4.40 shipping &. handling) 



TH- Power Supply 




*185 



■ Fixed S VDC at l.SA and two contin- 
uously-adjustable 0-20 VDC at 500mA 

• Interconnect outputs in any 
combination 

• Clutch-coupled 20 VDC supplies for 
dual-tracking operation 

• All outputs short-circuit proof 

• Ripple and noise less than 5 mVrms 

• Load or live regulation provides 
less than 0.1% (20 mVI variation on 
20V supplies and less than 2% 
variation on SV supply 

• 4.5" H x 10.75" W x 9.0" D 

SP-2718 185.00 

($3.15 shipping &. handling) 



Dual-trace DC- 10 MHz 
Oscilloscope 



$i 



650 



00 



• TWo vertical input channels with 
10 in v/i'iii sensitivity 

• 11 -step attenuator for lOmV/cm 
to 20V/cm deflection factors 

• 19-s tep horizontal time base from 
0-2 sec /cm to 0.2 usec/cm 

• Vertical accuracy within 3% 

• X5 horizontal expansion 

• Calibrated IV peak-to-peak square 
wave signal 

• 35 ns vertical rise time 

• Automatic triggering 

• 120/240 VAC, switch-selectable 

• 8.9" Hi 12.9" Wi 19.3 "D 

SO-4550 650.00 

I $5.50 shipping &, handling) 




Sine- square wave 
Audio Generator 




*185 



00 



• 1 1 lz-l(H) kHz frequency range 

• 0.003-10 Vrms sine wave output 
( 10k ft load J 

• 0.003-1 V sine wave output 
(600 n load > 

• Meter calibrated in volts and dB 

• —82 to +22 dB ranges 

■ 0.1-10 V square wave output 
(2000 ft load) 

• 50 nanosecond risethne 

• 5.13"Hxl3JS"Wx7.0"D 

SG-5218 185.00 

I $2.85 shipping & handling) 



Combination xl, xlO 
Scope Probe 



$ 29 



95 




■ Switch-selectable xl and xlO atten- 
uation at probe tip 

• Center (ground) switch position 
allows quick zero level check 

• DC to 15 MHz (xl) and DC to 80 MHz 
i vlC 1 1 ban ciu ill Ills 

• 4.0 nS (xlO) rise tune 

• Insulating tip,BNC dp adapter, 
IC tip, insulated compensation 
capacitor adjustment tool, vinyl case 

PKW-105 29.95 

($1.60 shipping*, handling) 



Order TOLL-FREE: 
800-253-0570 

8:00 AM to 8:00 PM Eastern Time M-R Sorry, toll-free service not 
available in Alaska. Hawaii or Michigan. Call 616-982-3411. 24 hours 
a day, seven days a week, TLX: 72-9421 



HEATH 



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Instruments 



For information on other Heath/Zenith Instruments write: 
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GX-383 



To receive your order faster, charge itl 

Use your Visa, MasterCard or Heath Revolving Charge. 

Please have your card or account number handy when you call. 

charg-Q-klt 





61 Service locations 
throughout the United 
States and Canada 

Heath kit Electronic Centers 
in Ihe U.S.* and Canada are 
listed in phone directory 
while pages, 
'units of Veri technology 
Elec Ironies Corporation. 




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25 



AUDIO POWER LEVEL METER 

The Audio Power Level Meter (February, 
1980 issue) can be modified to show about 
twice the dynamic range (55 dB) for those 
who like "dancing lights" down to back- 
ground power levels. With 55 dB dynamic 
range, if the top LED is calibrated to indi- 
cate 100 watts, the bottom LED will indi- 



H O 
ZI6HT CHfiNNEL. 



to 



cate .003 wattl In this modification, the 
meter is converted to a single-channel, 20 
LED meter, and thus, two are required for 
stereo. The modification requires replacing 
R20witha 1200 ohm, 5%, resistor and R21 
with a 4,870 ohm resistor (the previous val- 
ue of R20), eliminating R15, R17 and the 
left channel inputs, and rewiring (Fig. 1>. 



AJ£W Vf\LUE 

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A/£W 
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FIG. 1 



This modification should work with am- 
plifiers capable of 40 watts or more per 
channel. R2 is still adjusted as described in 
my article. Adjust R16 by playing music 
that lights up between 8 and 12 of the 
LED's and adjusting for a smooth transition 
from the 10th to 11th LED. (This is hard to 
describe but easy to dol) 

The standard PLM-1 kit can only be used 
with stereo amplifiers whose outputs in- 
clude a common ground (virtually all com- 
mercial amplifiers). Unfortunately, the Tal- 
bot amplifier in your December, 1979 issue 
does not have a common ground between 
two output channels, and thus can only be 
used with two independent PLM's, such as 
those built with this modification. Also, with 
this modified monaural PLM, one can be 
placed on top of each speaker in a stereo 
system, making it easy for the listener to 
see. 

Discussions with readers has shown me 
that many people don't realize that the pic- 
tures of the PLM-1 in my article were taken 
from underneath. When turned over, the 
PLM appears to be in a solid walnut case. 
continued on page 32 



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31 



LETTERS 

continued from page 26 



The PLM-1 kit is available from Symmetric 
Sound Systems, 1608 South Douglas Ave., 
Loveland, CO 80537 for $42 postpaid. 
JOE GORtN 
Loveland, CO 

LIGHT 

John W. Ecklin's letter In the March 1980 
issue concerns the velocity of light and oth- 
er electromagnetic radiation. His statement 
"the speed of light is a constant only to the 
source and may not be a constant to all 
observers'* is interesting. 

Consider first the Doppler explanation 
for spectrum shifts. That explanation was 
developed first to explain the changed 



pitch of sound from a moving source, and 
was based upon the fact that the relative 
velocity between sound and its source var- 
ies with the motion of the source. The varia- 
tions caused changes in wavelength to the 
front and rear which In turn caused the fre- 
quency as received to change. 

When light was believed to be a wave 
disturbance moving through an ether sub- 
stance, it was reasonable to assume a simi- 
lar effect upon the wavelength of light. 
After the failure of the Michelson-Morley 
experiment the wave-ether concept was 
abandoned. Relativity is based upon the 
postulate that light moves at a velocity 
which is an absolute constant, regardless 
of the motion of the source or receiver. If 
that is correct, the wavelength of light from 
a moving source must be the same as if the 



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source were motionless, and no spectrum 
shirt could occur. Spectrum shifts may 
result from a change in either wavelength 
or frequency as received, and neither 
wavelength or frequency can change under 
the absolute constant velocity concept. 

My reasoning suggests the following: A) 
We cannot reconcile the Doppler explana- 
tion and the absolute velocity concept. B) 
We cannot return to a simple wave concept 
because of the failure of the Michelson- 
Morley experiment. Therefore the only con- 
cept which will explain both the results of 
the Michelson-Morley experiment and 
spectrum shifts is the particle-photon con- 
cept of light. Under the photon concept, we 
may assume that light moves in full accord 
with Newton's principles of motion for par- 
ticles of matter. If so, the addition-of-veloc- 
ity principle will explain spectrum shifts as 
due to changes in velocity which change 
the frequency of light as received. Also 
when the Michelson-Morley experiment is 
re-analysed, assuming that light moves as 
a particle, the failure to detect an interfer- 
ence pattern is in agreement with the parti- 
cle concept. 

Measuring the velocity Of light photons is 
not sufficient to test this matter; what is 
required is an experiment which will com- 
pare, simultaneously, the speed of light 
from a stationary and a moving source. 
M.J. IRESON 
Sechelt, British Columbia, Canada 

FCC CERTIFICATION 

Regarding the article by Greg Grambor 
entitled "Servicing Communications 
Equipment" (May Issue). Mr. Grambor Is 
under the assumption that there is a "re- 
quired-by-law frequency and modulation 
certification" that must be performed year- 
ly. What he does not realize is that on Sep- 
tember 9, 1976 the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission put into effect the dereg- 
ulation proposal of Docket 20665, which 
eliminated required annual measurements 
of transmitter power, frequency and modu- 
lation. The responsibility of keeping the 
equipment in compliance with FCC specifi- 
cations now rests entirely with the user, 
allowing him to decide when to check the 
equipment. So contrary to Mr. Grambor's 
statement, each radio will not generate at 
least one service call a year. 
STEVEN L. NELSON 
Webster, MN 

With apologies to reader Nelson and oth- 
ers for my coming across a bit of stale 
source material, I stand corrected. Howev- 
er, it is important to note that, in principle, 
the idea of every piece of communications 
equipment generating at least one service 
call per year remains the same. In the 
words of Mr. Mannino, the gentleman I 
interviewed for the article, ". . . any good 
contractor will advise his customers to 
have a frequency and modulation check 
done annually, even though no longer man- 
dated by law. It is both in the interest of the 
license holder, and good business for the 
service shop, "—Greg Grambor 

EINSTEINIAN IMPOSSIBILITIES 

In reference to the letter by Anthony 
Hans Klotz on page 22 of the April 1980 
issue: Mr. Klotz has expressed a very com- 
mon misconception of Dr. Einstein's theory 
continued on page 36 



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The Industry challenge: 

Make it smaller. Make it better. 
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sophisticated DMMs. And rest 
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MS- 2 30. A whale of a miniscope. 
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At 3 lbs. 10 oz. r the MS-230 is the lightest miniscope around. Now you can take the scope to the problem. 
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Over 2000 DPMs. One commit- 
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full-scale. The PM-450 has no dL- 
Acuity at all reading the difference 
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In addition, our DPMs com- 
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Like automatic polarity indication. 




We offer over 2,000 DPMs - ACDC voltmeters, 
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We offer LED and LCD style 
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Another big plus. Our rugged, 
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Our versatile DPMs serve a 
variety of industries. From elec- 
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We serve a variety of customers, 
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So if your problem calls for an 
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Linear Systems has over 2,000 
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Get the word on us. Non-Linear 
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To get the whole story, from 
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Del Mar, California 92014. Tele- 
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Specialists in the science 
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© 1980 Non-Linear System. Inc. 



CIRCLE 6* ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



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Non-Linear Systems, Inc. 
Box N, Del Mar, 
California 92014 

Please send me your free 
1980 Catalog. 

Name 

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City 

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35 



LETTERS 

continued from page 32 



of Special Relativity. Radio- Electronics, 
unfortunately, has given credence to that 
misconception by allowing Mr. Klotz's let- 
ter to appear without comment. May I 
explain? 

A woman stands beside a highway. A 
man in an auto drives past her at a con- 
stant speed. The speedometer in the auto 
indicates 60 mph. 

The woman, looking at the auto, sees it 
zip past her. The man, looking out the win- 
dow of the auto, sees a woman zip past 
him. 

Which of those two observers is correct? 
The woman says an auto drove past her at 
60 mph. The man says he looked out the 



window of the auto and saw a woman zip 
past him at 60 mph. 

In everyday life, we automatically assume 
that it was the woman who was at rest and 
that the man in the auto was the one in 
motion. In our day-to-day affairs, such as 
assumption causes no difficulties, Howev- 
er, when such an assumption was extended 
to the realm of atomic particles, with their 
small masses and very high velocities and 
energies, the assumption rapidly caused 
severe problems and obvious miscalcula- 
tions. What to do? 

Dr. Einstein provided the answer. He 
showed with mathematical precision that 
both the man and the woman are equally 
correct. It is no more correct to say that the 
woman was still and the auto in motion 
than it is to say that the auto was still and 



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the woman zipped by, unless , . . 

Unless a third, independent observer is 
introduced. For example, an astronaut on 
the moon might look at the man and wom- 
an (imagine he has a super-telescope) and 
say: "Yes, the woman is standing on the 
earth and the man in the auto is moving 
over the earth's surface." Thus the motion 
of the man and woman must be judged rel- 
ativeto an observer. Even then, the motion 
is only relative to that one observer. For 
example, if the man and the woman were 
judged by a pilot flying a helicopter at 90 
mph in a direction opposite to that of the 
auto, the pilot's observation would be quite 
different from that of the astronaut. (The 
pilot would have to say that the woman was 
moving past him at 90 mph, while stating 
that the man in the auto was passing him at 
150 mph.) 

Returning now to Mr. Klotz's letter, which 
concerns tight beams moving relative to 
two observers, with one observer moving 
and the other at rest— Mr. Klotz comes to 
the conclusion that Dr. Einstein's logic is 
invalid. 

But the argument is deficient in two 
respects. First, Mr. Klotz cannot have two 
moving observers (a reference frame, and 
M' in his notation) without an additional 
observer to whom such motion would be 
relative. To speak of a "moving reference 
frame" is self-contradictory, as the refer- 
ence frame, by definition, is arbitrarily con- 
sidered stationary, in order to judge the 
motion of the other objects. If a reference 
frame is Indeed that, and is also assumed 
to be in motion, then two separate prob- 
lems are being combined invalidly. 

Mr. Klotz's second deficiency is in the 
use of lightbeams in a contradiction of sim- 
ultaneity. Dr. Einstein had theorized that 
the speed of light is a universal constant. It 
is the same relative to any and all observ- 
ers, in one of the most famous experiments 
in all physics. Dr. Albert Abraham Mich el - 
son confirmed that theory: It is an experi- 
mental fact. 

To appreciate Dr. Michelson's work, as- 
sume that two spaceships are rushing to- 
ward each other at % the speed of light. 
One of them is emitting a beam of light 
while the other tries to measure the speed 
of that beam. 

Now assume that the two spaceships are 
rushing away from each other at % the 
speed of light, and again one emits a beam 
of light while the other measures its speed. 
What results are obtained? 

One might assume that the measuring 
spaceship would measure the light beam at 
1V« times the speed of light when the ships 
are approaching, and at '/• the speed of 
light when they were retreating. Not so. The 
speed of light would be read exactly the 
same In both cases. As said, experimen- 
tally confirmed. 

Perhaps the simplest way of putting it is 
this; When Dr. Einstein published his fa- 
mous papers, it was the year 1905. The 
Ideas he presented therein were cailed the- 
ories. It is still common to refer to them as 
"theory," though most all of them have 
been confirmed time and again by direct 
experiment. Indeed, no modern atomic 
particle accelerator could function unless 
its design took Dr. Einstein's "theory" into 
account, 
ED EDWARDS 
Midland, Ml R-E 



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The Defender TS-1 CB 
Antenna Tuner/Monitor 




CIRCLE 101 OH FREE INFORMATION CARD 
ONE OF THE LEAST UNDERSTOOD PARTS OF A CB 

station may possibly be the antenna system. 
There seems to be a general idea that if you go 
out and buy a new antenna designed for opera- 
tion on all 40 channels, then you should expect 
equal efficiency at each channel chosen for 
your favorite operation. Not so! In most cases 
an antenna can operate at its best on only one 
particular channel and as one moves farther 
and farther away from that design point, there 
is a loss of efficiency. That has been noticed 



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especially in mobile units when checking for 
proper tuning of the antenna and you have 
found it difficult to get a good SWR reading 
across the entire band. In most cases you have 
had to accept a compromise adjustment. 

The Defender TS-1 is designed to allow you 
to squeeze every last bit of power out of your 
base rig. It operates by making it possible to 
adjust your antenna system to the point of opti- 
mum match with your transmitter. In other 
communication fields, that type of unit has 
been called by various names but it really is an 
antenna tuning unit. There have been some 
"add-on" items available for CB, but the 
Defender has built the tuner into an attractive 
wood-grained cabinet. In addition to the anten- 
na tuner, the TS-1 also contains a built-in pow- 
er meter capable of operation on either 5 or 50 
watts, an SWR (Standing Wave Jtatio) bridge, 
a modulation meter, and a handy antenna 
selector switch. The Defender is manufactured 
by The Shakespeare Co., Inc., Columbia, SC 
29202. 

In operation, the Defender is connected to 
the CB rig through a short piece of 50-ohm 
coaxial cable and the station antenna is con- 
nected to either one of the two antenna connec- 



tors on the rear panel of the unit. The unused 
connector can be terminated in a dummy load 
(supplied with the TS-l) or to a secondary 
station antenna. At that point, all further 
adjusting or measuring is accomplished with 
the front panel controls. For instance, if you 
wish to check the power output of the trans- 
mitter quickly, all that need be done is to set 
the antenna switch to the position the dummy 
load is connected to, press the button marked 
power, and read the output power directly on 
the meter face. Calibration is from 0-5 watts. 
By setting the antenna selector switch to the 
position that connects the antenna to the rig 
you are now ready either to check the SWR of 
the system or to continue communicating. 
Assuming that you would want to test the 
SWR, all that is required would be first to 
press the forward button, and adjust the 
METER adjust control for full-scale reading on 
the meter while keying the transmitter. Then 
press the reverse button (still holding the 
transmitter in the keyed position); the meter 
will now indicate the SWR value. The center 
scale is used for that measurement and is coded 
in bright red when the SWR exceeds 3 to 1 . Of 
continued on page 40 



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39 



EQUIPMENT REPORTS 

continued from page 38 



course, if you are using two (2) antennas con- 
nected to the defender then you could press 
the selector switch and check the SWR of the 
secondary antenna. The SWR reading is a 
good indicator of the efficiency of your anten- 
na system. 

The Defender will also allow you to tell at a 
glance just how much "talk-power" your rig is 
delivering. That function is accomplished by 
the built-in modulation checker. While keying 
the transmitter but not talking, press the SET 
button and adjust the meter adjust control 
for a reading of 1 00% on the meter. Now, by 
pressing the test button and speaking into the 
microphone, you will note that the meter will 
indicate a reading that should increase the 



louder you speak. The percentage of modula- 
tion is checked by using the bottom scale of the 
meter. Remember, whenever you exceed the 
100% reading while speaking into the micro- 
phone, your audio quality will be degraded, 
and distortion will be noticeable on your signal. 
The Defender operating manual suggests that 
you constantly monitor the percent modulation 
at all times in an attempt to keep your voice at 
the level that will provide the best talk-power 
on the air. 

And now, we come to the antenna-tuning 
capabilities of the Defender TS-1. To make 
your antenna sytem present the best load possi- 
ble to the transmitter, tune your rig to the 
desired channel and depress the swr reverse 
button. Set the antenna match switch to the 
in position, key the microphone (don't speak), 
and adjust the TUNE control until a reduction 



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40 




in the SWR reading on the meter is noticed. 
When you have found the point of minimum 
reading, adjust the load knob until once more 
the reading on the meter is at minimum. By 
repeating each of those two adjustments — the 
tune and the load controls — until no further 
reduction is obtained, you may gel close to a 
perfect l-to-1 match. To check, measure the 
SWR and you may be happily surprised to find 
that it is much lower than that which was pre- 
viously measured on that particular antenna. 
The match will be best only at the channel in 
use when you tuned the antenna. If you change 
the operating frequency (channel) then you 
should either place the matching switch in the 
out position, or, retune the system to the new 
channel. It should also be pointed out that the 
adjustment for one antenna will not usually be 
the same for another antenna. Each time the 
antenna is changed or there is a switch in the 
operating channel, to keep the system at opti- 
mum, the tuner should be readjusted. 

In the model supplied, there is a toggle 
switch located on the rear panel which allows 
the Defender to be used to make readings up to 
a maximum of 50 watts of RF power. There 
are instructions provided for such use. Howev- 
er, all other measurements and checks must be 
made at 5 watts only. 

The Defender TS-1 is covered by a 1-year 
limited warranty from the manufacturer. It has 
specifications that include SWR measure- 
ments of 3 to 1 and over, power output mea- 
surements of 5 and 50 watts, modulation to 
125% can be checked and the antenna tuner 
can match a 4-to-l system to provide an SWR 
of 1.5 to I (or less). 

In an actual test of the Defender, we were 
able to match two different antenna systems 
that initially had SWR readings of almost 3 to 
1. We obtained an almost perfect match for 
both antennas. It should be noted that your 
system may vary from what we obtained. How- 
ever, if the SWR in your system is reduced by 
even a small amount, there can be little doubt 
that your system is providing a more potent 
signal. And, isn't that really what you arc 
attempting to do in the long run? R-E 

IB T Model RCS-500 R-C 
Substitution Box 




CIRCLE 13 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



CIRCLE 102 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

ANYONE WHO HAS GONE THROUGH THE AGONY 

of trial-and-error component substitution by 
the "one-at-a-time" connect and disconnect 
method will appreciate the convenience of the 
Model RCS-500 resistance/capacitance sub- 
slituter from IET. 

The RCS-500 is actually a combination of 
two separate resistance and capacitance substi- 
tution boxes available as the models RS-200 
and CS-300. 

continued on page 42 



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CIRCLE 42 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



EQUIPMENT REPORTS 

continued from page 40 



The substituter features thumbwheel selec- 
tion of values, independently obtained from 
either the resistance or capacitance side of the 
instrument through separate terminals. 

The real beauty of such an instrument is, of 
course, the capability of dialing in virtually any 
resistance or capacitance imaginable. 

The resistance portion of the box is accurate 
to 1%. All resistive components are '/;-watt 
units, serially tied, allowing for a selection in 
1-ohm increments from 1 to 9,999,999 ohms. 
Residual circuit resistance is 0.4 ohms. 

The resistance thumbwheels are convenient- 
ly separated and labelled as ohms, kilohms, and 
megohms. Thus, no mental gymnastics are 
necessary — merely dial it up and read it! 



The capacitor portion of the substituter is 
just as simple to use. The thumbwheel switches 
on that side of the instrument are labelled in 
microfarads, nanofarads, and picofarads. 

Capacitance selection begins at 100 picofa- 
rads, incrementally advancing in 1 00-picofarad 
steps to a maximum value of 99.9999 microfa- 
rads, All capacitors below 10 microfarads are 
rated at 100 volts; those above 10 microfarads 
will tolerate 25 volts. 

Capacitors are parallel-tied, with a residual 
circuit capacitance of 30 picofarads. Capaci- 
tors in this section are specified at A% toler- 
ance. We decided to check their actual values 
to see whether they are really that close. Elec- 
trolytic capacitors arc especially notorious for 
drifting away from their rated value, and elec- 
trlytics are typically rated below their actual 
capacitances. 



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Checking the specifications 

The instrument we used to check the capaci- 
tors was lET's own CM-500 autoranging digi- 
tal capacitance meter, certified earlier as being 
accurately calibrated. 

Below 1 microfarads, the capacitors in the 
RCS-500 were well within tolerance, with 
most measuring ± 2 to 3 percent. At 10 
microfarads and above, tolerance fell back a 
little, as was expected, to an accuracy of 
between 7 to 8 percent. Still, that is better than 
the usual +50% found on many electrolytics! 

Internally, the circuit-board assembly and 
layout shows the care we have found to be 
typical of IET eraftmanship. The cabinet is 
high-impact plastic, heavy-duty thickness, and 
all functions are clearly labelled. 

The model RCS-500 measures 7.40 X 4.33 
X 2.36-inches and weighs a mere 14.5 ounces. 
While the RCS-500 (or the separate resistance 
and capacitance boxes) arc certainly adequate 
for the vast majority of applications found in 
servicing and prototype design, a new series of 
tight-tolerance subslituters has been an- 
nounced. The RX-201 resistance box uses 
0.1% resistors, while the CS-301 capacitance 
box features 1% capacitors. 

But for most of us, the accuracy of the RCS- 
500 resistance/ capacitance substitution box is 
more than adequate. 

Remember that when you use a substitution 
box certain precautions must be taken: Voltage 
ratings for the capacitors must not be ex- 
ceeded; nor should switches be continually 
flipped among high-capacitance values which 
are connected across B + . That will produce 
arcing which could gradually break down the 
contact surfaces of the thumbwheel switches. 
Also, don't forget that excessive current-flow 
through resistors will cause them to heat up, 
often permanently changing their resistances if 
not totally destroying them. 

Properly used, an R-C substitution box of 
the quality of the IET unit will offer years of 
trouble-free service. The RCS-500 digital re- 
sistance/capacitance substituter sells for 
SI 85.95, For further information, write IET 
Labs, Inc., 761 Old Country Road, Westbury, 
NY 11590. R-E 

Da long Model AD-170 
Active Antenna 




CIRCLE 103 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

MILITARY RECEIVING INSTALLATIONS HAVE 
used active antennas for years. Recently, their 
high performance and reasonable cost have 
caught the attention of many shortwave listen- 
ers. Several manufacturers now offer varia- 
tions on that unique antenna principle. 

Datong, a British firm, offers the Model 
AD-170 indoor receiving antenna system that 
is designed for continuous coverage from 60 
kHz through 70 MHz. It consists of several 
interconnecting parts: antenna preamplifier, 
wire dipole elements, interface unit, intercon- 
necting cable and power supply. 

In application, the wire dipole is suspended 



42 



horizontally as high as possible indoors. An 
attic space, away from electrical wiring or 
metallic mass, is ideal. The manufacturer 
advises the user to experiment with a number 
of mounting configurations, both in direction 
and polarity. In some cases, vertical mounting 
of the elements will work better than hori- 
zontal mounting. 

The AD- 1 70 is designed to feed its signal 
into a receiver's 50-ohm antenna input. An AC 
adapter that comes with the unit supplies 12- 
volts DC at 120 mA. The antenna preamplifier 
is not waterproof, so a protected installation is 
required. Transmission line length is only 15 
feet, requiring indoor use. 

Internally, the AD-170 is nicely laid out. 
Components are carefully hand soldered onto a 
glass epoxy circuit board. 

Specifications of the antenna system are 
impressive. Third-order intermodulation prod- 
ucts are typically — 90-dB relative to 100 mV. 
Second-order intermodulation distortion is 
— 80-dB relative to 50 mV. Response is essen- 
tially flat over its operating frequency range. 

The received signal "sees" the AD-170 as a 
high-to-tow impedance converter, capacitively 
coupled to the signal as 12 picofarads. A 
switchable preamplifier allows an additional 
12-dB gain that is to be used for weak signal 
reception. 

Although the AD-170 is very short (10 feet 
dipole length), it is equivalent in performance 
to a full size 16 MHz half-wave dipole. At 
higher frequencies, performance increases at 
the rate of 6 dB-per-octave. Below 16 MHz the 
gain decreases at the same rate, 6 dB-per- 
octave as compared with a full size half-wave 
dipole at the frequency of interest. It is easy to 
see that although the response of the AD-170 
is down IS dB at 2 MHz, a full size 2-MHz 
dipole would be 250-feet long. This much wire 
is entirely unnecessary to capture adequate sig- 
nal for modern high-sensitivity shortwave re- 
ceivers. In fact, broadcast-band interference 
would create a real problem with intermodula- 
tion in most cases. An antenna needs only to be 
long enough to present a signal of high enough 
intensity to override system noise. 

We decided to test the overall performance 
of the AD-170 against a 66-foot reference 
dipole. The dipole was approximately 15 feet 
above the soil and the AD-170 was mounted 
only 8 feet high. Both antennas were mounted 
in the same direction to cancel directional 
effects. 

A McKay-Dymck DR-33C receiver with a 
calibrated S-meter was used as the broadband 
receiver. The antennas were switched through 
a Daiwa CS-2QI IJHF coaxial antenna switch. 
The receiver was tuned to dozens of signals 
throughout the 100-kHz to 50-MHz range. In 
virtually every case, the AD-170 was clearly 
superior to the dipole, often by 10 or 20 dB, 
sometimes more. The only times that the large 
reference dipole was ahead was when it was 
receiving signals near its self-resonant frequen- 
cy, and even then the difference was only about 
5DB. 

Use it as an RDF 

As an experiment, we connected two 5-foot 
lengths of lightweight aluminum rod to the 
preamplifier. That dipole was then rotated 
while monitoring a variety of signals through- 
out (he spectrum broadcast through CB. The 
directional effects were quite pronounced. 
Variations on that arrangement will probably 
occur to readers who are interested in erecting 
a wide frequency coverage direction-finding 
antenna. The system would also be valuable for 



nulling out interference. 

We would recommend two improvements to 
the manufacturer. One would be the availabili- 
ty of a coaxial-cable extension so that the line 
can be run less directly for cosmetic reasons. 
Connectors on the interconnecting cable are 
European, and difficult to find in this country. 
The second would be a weather proofing kit 
consisting of a plastic housing for the liltle 
preamplifier and its terminals. 

We found the AD-170 to be thoughtfully 
designed, competently engineered, and reason- 
ably priced. For the apartment dweller, or for 
the SWL who doesn't have an enormous 
amount of real estate lo erect a large dipole, an 
active antenna like the AD-170 is hard to beat. 
The AD-170 active antenna system sells for 
$89.00, Available from Gilfer Associates, 
P. O, Box 239, Park Ridge, NJ 07656. R-E 



Micron ta BP-1 Blood- 
Pressure Tester 

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, MEDICAL EXPERTS BEGAN 
to realize that premature death might be large- 
ly avoided if a certain number of telltale signs 
were heeded. Those "risk factors" included, 
among other things, obesity, smoking, stress, 
and blood pressure. 

It is a well established fact that high blood 
pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor 
to a shortened life span. Fortunately, it is easily 
diagnosed; unfortunately, too few Americans 
bother to have it checked. 

Traditionally, blood pressure (BP) is tested 
by a gadget with the fancy name, sphygmoma- 
nometer. That is the familiar inflatable cuff 
continued on page 44 



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Up until now voltage and continuity testers 
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needed to be changed for higher voltages. 

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products are different. 

SEE THE DIFFERENCE — The PA1751 
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These testers feature true ac/dc voltage 
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FEELTHE DIFFERENCE - These Paladin 
Testers are molded from tough, durable 
plasti c that ensu res th e ir co nt i nu ed operation 
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EXPERIENCE THE DIFFERENCE — The 
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Order your tester today by simply filling 
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indicate the total number of testers ordered 

and the total amount enclosed. Send to: 
^ PALADIN CORPORATION 
31332 Via Colinas 
X Westlake. CA 91 361 

PMADIH (213)991^(970 



Please send me; 



. PA1751 Voltage Testers] 

@ onlyS19.95 each. 
. PA1752 Continuity Testers) 

@ SIS 50 each. 

Grand total enclosed S_ 



(Add S2.00 for postage, handling: 
Calif, residents add 6% sales tax) 



Bill my D Mastercharge □ VISA 

Card account # 

Signature 

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CIRCLE 59 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



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$140 

Gets It All. 




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We just knocked down the last reasons for not going digital in a 
multimeter. Fast continuity measurement. And price. 

Beckman's exclusive Insta-Ohms™ feature lets you do continuity checks 
as fast as the analogs. And Beckman's superior technology and experience 
let you own this beauty for such a reasonable price. 

Of course you get a lot more. Like 7 functions and 29 ranges including 
10 amp ac/dc current capability. 0.25% Vdc accuracy. In-circuit resistance 
measurements and diode /transistor test function. Two years' typical operation 
from a common 9- volt battery. In other words, all the features you want in 
one hand-held unit of exceptional good looks and design. 

With 1500 Vdc overload protection, 100% instrument burn-in, plus 
rugged, impact-resistant case, you're assured of the utmost in dependability and 
long-term accuracy. You get a tough meter that keeps on going, no matter 
how tough the going gets. 

So visit your dealer today and get your hands on the DMM that does it 
all. Or call (714) 871-4848, ext. 3651 for your nearest distributor. 



BECKMAN 

CIRCLE 51 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



EQUIPMENT REPORTS 

continued from page 43 



aparatus found in every doctor's office, ambu- 
lance, clinic, dentist's office, and even some 
American homes as well. It works in a manner 
similar to a barometer. The inflated cuff blocks 
circulation in an artery of the arm, and the 
meter indicates the amount of pressure neces- 
sary to cause the stoppage. 




CIRCLE 104 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

Each time the muscular lower chambers of 
the heart contract (systole), the forward surge 
of blood builds up pressure in the arteries. 
Between beats (diastole), the pressure drops 
lower, A comparison, or ratio, between the sys- 
tolic and diastolic pressures is the familiar 
fraction used to indicate blood pressure. An 
average, healthy adult might show a blood 
pressure of 120/80. This means that during 
the increased pressure of the heart beat, the 
pressure in the vessel is equivalent to a column 
of mercury 1 20 millimeters in height. Between 
beats, the pressure drops to an equivalent of 80 
millimeters of mercury. In fact, the older 
sphygmomanometers used a column of mercu- 
ry as the indicator. 

Most present-day blood -pressure measuring 
devices display their measured pressure on a 
calibrated dial. That instrument is similar to an 
aneroid barometer. 

The use of any conventional blood- pressure 
tester requires a two-step procedure. First, the 
cuff has to be wrapped and inflated. Second, a 
stethoscope is required to detect the cutoff 
pressure so that the readings can be taken. It is 
very difficult for an individual to measure his 
own blood pressure when working under such 
an arrangement. 

Now, Micronta has released a "do-it-your- 
self" blood-pressure tester available from Ra- 
dio Shack. The pressure cuff is still there, but 
it is equipped with a buckle and Velcro combi- 
nation that makes one-arm application easy. A 
white dot on the cuff shows the proper location 
for the artery at the elbow joint of your arm. 
Under the dot, a small pressure transducer 
monitors the blood pressure, signalling the 
electronic circuitry in the instrument. 

As with older stethoscope units, the cuff is 
inflated until arterial pressure no longer sup- 
plies an increase of systolic pressure. On the 
Micronta BP-1, that is indicated by an audible 
"beep" as well as a flashing red LED. A 
thumb-operated pressure-release button is 
then activated to reduce pressure until the 
beep is no longer heard, and the light ceases its 
flashing; that indicates diastolic pressure. 
Those two points are read on the gauge, and 
recorded in the usual fashion. A handy printed 
continued on page 84 



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TO YOU. . 



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6502 

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Right Out Of Electronic 
Counterintelligence . . . 



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THE 

HIERONVIYIUS 
MACHINE 



Voice stress Computer 



It's almost beyond belief. This tiny solid- 
state instrument measures 3" x 6" xlYs" 
and fits in a pocket. Yet it contains 
sophisticated electronic circuitry, a 
microphone, and three red diodes. It 
analyzes the human voice for stress. 

Once you learn, in about 30 minutes, 
how to use the Hieronymus Machine, you 
will be able to discover whether a person 
Is calm or stressful — merely by monitor- 
ing his or her voice. 

DEFINITELY NOT A "LIE DETECTOR" 

The Hieronymus Machine is not a lie 
detector. Nor Is It a "truth" device, Even 
the famed polygraph machine Is not a 
lie detector, plain and simple. The 
polygraph can be used to monitor a per- 
son's pulse, respiration, blood pressure, 
and galvanic skin response, bodily func- 
tions affected by stress. 

And In the hands of a skilled operator, 
the polygraph can be used to gain In- 
sights about a person's stress levels when 
talking about certain topics. But a very 
real part of the polygraph's usefulness Is 
the "Hieronymus Effect," which we'll get 
to In a moment. 

SPIES AND COUNTERSPIES 

During wartime, counterintelligence 
experts wondered If science could come 
Up with something simpler than the 
polygraph to help ferret out spies. 
Researchers became attracted to the 
theory that human voices emit "micro- 
tremors," low-frequency vibrations that 
are generally Inaudible or masked by 
other voice components. 

An article in Popular Electronics (April 
1980) describes the theory In detail, But 
the short story Is that after spending 
millions of dollars, researchers 
developed a voice stress analyzer. Now, 
the authors of the definitive article In 
Popular Electronics have perfected a 
personal voice stress analyzer, which we 
call the Hieronymus Machine. 

WHAT IT DOES, HOW YOU USE IT 

The Hieronymus Machine electronically 
measures changes In voice micro- 
tremors. The read-out Is simple: one red 
diode Indicates normal, two show 
moderate stress, and three reveal 
greater stress, ranging from mild to 
severe anxiety. 

You, as the operator, could use the 
Hieronymus Machine like a thermometer, 
checking the "fever level" of stress. As 
you gain skill, your judgment will Im- 




prove, enabling you to pursue or avoid a 
line of questioning or discussion that pro- 
duces stressful responses. 

MANY USES AT HOME OR WORK 

You can use the Hieronymus Machine 
at home to have fun with your family. 
You'll discover how It responds to dif- 
ferent people's voices, what effect 
laughter and singing have on It, and 
even evaluate politico ns' speeches over 
TV or radio. It works quite well on transmit- 
ted voices, as well as over the telephone 
or with tape recordings. 

Next, try It on friends. See how well so- 
meone's favorite fish story holds up when 
you point out that the Hieronymus 
Machine doesn't believe a word ot It. 
And watch that poker face disappear as 
the "stress" diode steadily Insists you're 
not getting the whole story. 

BIOFEEDBACK FOR YOU 

If you're required to talk In front of 
groups or need to speak convincingly to 
one person at a time, you can use the 
Hieronymus Machine to monitor your 
voice and learn a more relaxed, self- 
assured, persuasive style of delivery. If 
you wanted to learn hypnotism, a relax- 
ed voice would be a real asset — and 
the Hieronymus Machine could help you 
achieve It. 

At work, there are numerous situations 
in which the Hieronymus Machine could 
work wonders. Here's how: Hieronymus 
Bosch was a 15th-century painter known 
for his startling originality- He was also 
something of a medical practitioner, 
and he believed that patients could be 
cured by passing stones over their 
bodies. Bosch achieved success 
because his patients believed that a 
cure was taking place. 

Nearer our own time, a couple of 
science fiction writers concocted a 
devise they named after Bosch: It pro- 
duced varying sensations In the user 
depending on where a dial was set, from 
zero to 1D0. The amazing thing was that 
this machine worked on subjects even 
when It wasn't plugged in — a perfect 
Hieronymus Effect! 

Now we have a true Hieronymus 
Machine, the Voice Stress Analyzer, it ac- 
tually works, and among other things of a 
scientifically verifiable nature, It pro- 
duces the Hieronymus Effect. In Its 
presence, people suddenly become 
more forthright. In some cases, with such 
a machine present, employees being 

CIRCLE 12 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



asked about office theft became very 
cooperative In answering questions 
truthfully. Naturally, you'll want to use the 
Hieronymus Machine In plain sight and 
tell people what It does. This actually 
gets more cooperation from them. 

30-DAY TRIAL, 
MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 

The potential uses of the Hieronymus 
Machine are limited only by your Im- 
agination, Try It at no risk for 30 days. 
We'll send you one or more with com- 
plete Instructions (9v. battery not Includ- 
ed). You'll be able to try It, experiment, 
even conduct your own "Investigation." 

Governments and police departments 
and huge corporations are already us- 
ing large (briefcase-sized) versions of this 
kind of machine, and they have to pay 
53,000 or so for theirs. But you can have a 
personal Hieronymus Machine for only 
Si 19,95, If you're not satisfied, send it 
back (insured) for a full refund, no ques- 
tions asked. If you want two, the cost is 
$109.95 each. And if you want three or 
more for business use, It's only $99.95 
each. You're also protected by a 1-year 
parts and labor warranty. 

EXCLUSIVE BY MAIL FROM MERCURY 

The Hieronymus Machine cannot be 
obtained In stores or from any other 
source. To order, send check or money 
order to the address below. Or charge It 
on American Express, Carte Blanche, 
Diners Club, Master Charge or Visa. You 
can also call us toll free: 

800-526-2801 

or 
800-257-7850 

In New Jersey, call toll free 800-322-8650. 
Include $2.50 Insured shipping charge 
per Machine. N.J. residents please add 
5% sales tax. 
Or mall your order to: 



«M NATIONAL SALES GROUP 

OB mE^ciRY 

UtV THE I M A G / rV A T 1 N PEOPLE '" 



® 



Dept. RE9, Lake wood Plaza 
Lakewood, N.J. 08701 



PM^lM^l^^DMf 



Plug - in 
Remote 
Control 




SYSTEM 

LSI technology now brings us armchair control of electrical 

devices throughout the home. Here's the inside story on 

how those controllers work. 



STEVEN A. CIARCIA* 

'SAVING ENERGY AND SAVING STEPS" 

are two of the basic selling points in the 
advertising for the BSR Model X-10 
Home Control System. In actuality, the 
features of this unit combine to make 
the X-10 one of the most ingenious re- 
mote control systems yet introduced to 
the consumer market. 

The X-10 {also sold under the trade 
names of Sears" Home Control System 
and Radio Shack Plug'n Power, and in 
Europe by Busch-Jaeger Electro) in- 
corporates custom-made IC's that allow 
the user to turn lights or appliances on 
or off from the comfort of an easy 
chair. Typical applications can include 
such things as turning on the outside 
lights, the TV, and the toaster oven — all 
with just the push of a few buttons. 

If you are too practical to accept that 
concept on convenience alone, consider 
energy and security applications as 
well. The X-10 makes it easier to turn 
off extra lights and appliances when 
you are not using them. It can tum on 
all lights in the event of an emergency, 
turn everything off when you go to bed, 
or dim lights in order to reduce power 
consumption. 

* Steven Ciarcia is an engineering consultant 
and writes the monthly "Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar" 
and "Ask Byte" columns in Byte, a McGraw Hill 
publication. 
Copyright © 1980 Steven A. Ciarcia 




FIG. 1— PROGRAMMABLE TIMER permits con- 
trol of lights and appliances without any human 
intervention. 

The X-10 system components 

The X-IO system consists of five 
separate modules: the Command Con- 
troller, Cordless Controller, Lamp 
Module, Appliance Module, and Wall 
Switch Module. There is also a new 
programmable timer unit (see Fig. I) 
that provides the system with a sem- 
blance of automatic control. 

The command controller is the central 
element in the system. It sends com- 
mands to the three types of receiver 
modules by coded messages sent 
through the AC power lines. The cord- 
less controller is a remote extension of 
the command controller and has a 
matching keyboard. When pointed at 
the command console from up to 30 feet 
away, any command that is selected on 



it will be transmitted to the command 
controller and carried out. The com- 
munication between the two units is 
done ultrasonically. 

Lamp- and wall-switch modules are 
essentially the same. They are triac- 
controlled on/off switches that include 
dimmers. The lamp module is plugged 
into a wall outlet in series with the light 
to be controlled while the wall-switch 
module replaces a conventional wall 
switch. Those units are rated at 300 
watts. For heavier, or non-resistive 
loads, a contact-closure-output ap- 
pliance module is used. It is rated at 1 5 
amps (about 1700 watts). 

Inside the command controller 

Figure 2-a is a block design of the 
command console. There are two ver- 
sions of that unit on the market. One 
has the ultrasonic receiver/cordless- 
controller capability; the other hasn't. 
An interna) view of a controller in- 
cluding the ultrasonic circuitry is 
shown in Fig. 3. At the heart of that, as 
well as of the other system components, 
are custom LSI IC's manufactured for 
BSR by Genera] Instruments Corpora- 
tion. Fully expanded, the BSR system 
can accommodate 256 independently 
addressable receivers. That is accom- 
plished using 16 sets of addresses called 
"house codes" and 16 "device codes" 



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40-kHz 

ULTRASONIC 

RECEIVER 



120-kHz 
CARRIER 
CURRENT 
TRANSMITTER 



CUSTOM 
LSI 
CHIP 
(24 PIN) 



20VDLT 
PDWER SUPPLY 
(TO ALL SECTIONS 



22- 

BUTTON 
KEYPAD 
(SCANNED) 



HOUSE 
CODE 

SWITCH 







120-kHz 
CARRIER 

CURRENT 
RECEIVER 














CUSTOM 
LSI 

CHIP 
(18 PIN) 




15 AMP117VAC 
SOLENOID 
ACTIVATED 
SWITCH 










— *• 




















DC POWER 

SUPPLY 

(TOALLSECTIDNS) 




1,7 * . 




HOUSE AND DEVICE 
CODE SWITCHES 


VAC 



























117VAC 
OUTPUT 
TO APPLIANCE 
OR LIGHT 



40 kHz 
TRANSDUCER 









I 




t 


h 


40-kHz 

ULTRASONIC 

TRANSMITTER 




CUSTOM 
LSI 
CHIP 
(24 PIN) 




22- 

BUTTON 
KEYPAD 
(SCANNED) 






UT) 


T 






9 VOLT 
BATTERY 


















FIG. 2 — FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAMS of a command module, b appliance module, and c remote-control 
transmitter. Text describes operating principles. 




FIG. 3 — CONTROLLER MODULE, despite its complexity, Is surprisingly small — only 4'/i x 3'A x 2Vi 
inches. 



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48 



for each house code. The separate 
house codes allow next-door neighbors 
to use X-10"s without interfering with 
each other. A thumbwheel switch on 
the bottom of the command console 
sets the 4-bit house code. The keyboard 
selection determines the channel code. 
This is shown in Fig. 4 and Table I. 
In normal operation the 22-button 



keypad, which is wired as a 3x8 matrix, 
is scanned at a rate of 3.8 kHz. When a 
button is pressed, its designated func- 
tion and the house code are combined 
into a single message. The digital mes- 
sage is directed to the transmitter sec- 
tion where it generates 120 kHz signals 
that are used to pulse-width modulate 
the AC line. (See Fig. 5.) 




HANDHELD remote controller uses a single IC 
to encode and transmit all commands. 




ALL COMMANDS available from main console 
are also found on remote-control keypad. 

In order to synchronize the digitally- 
encoded serial output (pin 15) with the 
60-Hz AC line, the circuit must include 
zero crossing detection. That is done 
by feeding the AC line into the trigger 
input (pin 12) where the switching point 
is detected within 100 microseconds of 
zero crossing. (Incidentally, pin 13 pro- 
vides for 50- or 60-Hz operation.) 

The transmitted message, now syn- 
chronous with the line, is clocked, a bit 
at a time, on zero crossing. A command 
message contains 9 bits of information 
consisting of the 4-bit house code and 
5-bit matrix (keyboard function) code. 
Each message is transmitted in true and 
inverted format on successive half- 
cycles of the AC waveform. That is 
illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. A logic- 1 bit 
is three 1 -millisecond bursts of 120 kHz 
signal commencing approximately 200 
fis after the zero crossing of each of the 
phases. A logic-zero bit is represented 
by no signal for that half cycle. To syn- 
chronize the receivers with the trans- 
mitter, a trigger code consisting of three 
successive logic- 1 bits followed by a 
logic -zero bit is used. The complete 
message takes 1 1 full AC cycles ( 183 ms) 
to complete. 

Actual attachment to the line is by 
means of a transformer and capacitor 
coupler. That combination is necessary 
both for protection and economics. The 
effective range of this system is gen- 
erally all the wiring from the controller 
to the nearest power company step- 
down transformer. There are usually 
five or six houses on each transformer 
and some coordination with respect to 
the choice of house codes may be 





















1 


28 
















25 












S 1 S 3 Sj 

542 
CUSTOM 
"1 LSI 
IC 

H 4 
H 6 


K 6 


23 


DIM 


IS 


15 




22 




OFF 


12 


It 




21 




CLEAR 


14 


13 




20 


s 


ON 


4 


3 




19 


9 


8RT 


8 


7 




18 


10 


ALL 
ON 


6 


5 




17 


1! 




2 


1 




16 


13 




10 























TABLE 1 






House Code 


H8 


H4 


H2 


HI 


A 


1 








i 


B 











1 


C 


1 


1 





1 


D 





1 





1 


E 


1 


1 


1 





F 





1 


1 





G 


1 





1 





H 








1 





I 


1 











J 














K 


1 


1 








L 





1 








M 


1 


1 


1 


1 


N 





1 


1 


1 





1 





1 


1 


P 








1 


1 



FIG. 4— KEYPAD FUNCTIONS and connections to 542C custom IC. Pin 13 of the IC allows for SO Or 60 
Hz operation... at 1 17 volts AC. 



necessary. Also, since the version of 
the X-10 sold in the U.S. is a 117-volt 
unit, and most homes derive their 117- 
volt power from both sides of a 220- volt 
line, sometimes there can be problems 
in obtaining consistent operation when 
receiver modules are used on both the 
1 17- volt lines and relatively few 220- 
volt appliances are in operation to act 
as a communication bridge. Placement 
of the receivers could require some ex- 
perimentation. 

Ultrasonics and the X-10 

There is a second method by which 



the command console designates a con- 
trol function and transmits instructions. 
That is through the ultrasonic handheld 
controller. When a key is pressed, a 
code is generated and transmitted as a 
series of 40 kHz tone bursts. The com- 
mand console, receiving that information 
through its ultrasonic receiver section 
and injecting it into pin 7 of its LSI IC, 
accepts it as if a button had been pushed 
on the command console. It then adds 
the house code and retransmits the 
command message over the house 
wiring. 
Figure 8 and Table 2 show in detail 



the communication between the two 
subsystem components. Each of the 22 
buttons has a unique 5-bit code. For ex- 
ample, channel 5 would result in a code 
of 000 1 corresponding to bit positions 
D8, D4, D2, Dl, and F respectively. 
"All lights on" would be OOOll. 

The actual message which communi- 
cates that selection is approximately 
1 00 ms long and comprised of thirteen 
8-ms segments. Each segment consists 
of a burst of 40 kHz directed to an ultra- 
sonic transducer. A logic- 1 is a 4-ms 
burst and a logic-0 is a l.2-ms burst. 
To signify channel 5 the cordless con- 
troller first sends a trigger bit to alert 
the receiver in the command console 
that a message is coming. That is a 40 




iLio^F 



ORANGE 



BROWN 



GREEN 



BLACK 



ROTARY 
SWITCH 



1.2K 
•VA- 



^ 



& 



270K 



I00K 
-AW- 



YELLOW 



J_33pF 
T*25V 

22pF_J_ 
25V " 



542C 



28 



DIM 



OFF 



ALL 
OFF 



Un 



SR 



ALL 
ON 



16 



13 



i 



KEYPAD 



2.2K 



■BZfln 



RG. 5 — COMMAND CONSOLE schematic allows you to visualize now information Is encoded and 
transmitted over AC line. Also shown is transducer for use with ultrasonic remote control. (Courtesy 
BSR [USA] Ltd.) 



m 

H 

m 

co 
m 

3J 



g 
49 



PHASE ! 




117VAC6(JHz 



TRIGGER 
CLOCK Lit 
DATA OUT 



FIG. 6 — TIMING DIAGRAM shows how AC line current is pulse-width modulated to transmit informa- 
tion from command console to appliance and lighting modules. 




FIG. 7 — DEMODULATED 120 kHz signals that make up control message.. The three 1-ms bursts 
signifying a logic "1" are clearly seen. 



-COMPLETE MESSAGE- 



START OF MESSAGE 
(LOGIC "1") 



END OF MESSAGE 



11 



B ms 



D8 



D4 



D2 



Dl 



in; 



04 



D2 




EACH DIVISION ISBms 
-40kHr 



DORF 
LOGIC "1" 



4 ms- 



r 



8 ms 



i— 40 kHz 
I 

D ORF J 

LOGIC "0" 

1.2 ms— * [*- 



8 ms 



FIG. &— MESSAGE FORMAT used by the ultrasonic remote controller. Tone bursts are 40 kHz. 



to 
O 
z 
o 
rr 

Hi 

—I 

LU 

6 
a 
< 

50 




APPLIANCE MOOULE interior is tightly packed. The solenoid and 15-amp switch mentioned in the 
text are at the left of the case; the AC outlet at right. 



kHz tone for 4 ms. Next, the 5-bit 
matrix-selection code is sequentially 
transmitted as a series of 1 .2- and 4-ms 
bursts of 40 kHz signal. It is followed 
by a transmission of the logical inver- 



sion of the previous 5-bit selection code 
and then a 12-ms "end of message" 
burst. All messages use the same for- 
mat — only the 5-bit selection code 
varies. Also, since the command console 



TABLE 2 










Channel Number 
or Function 


Binary Code 




08 


D4 


D2 


Dl 


F 


1 





1 


1 








2 


1 


I 


1 








3 








1 








4 


1 





1 








5 











1 





6 


1 








1 





7 





1 





1 





8 


1 


1 





1 





9 





1; 


1 


1 





10 


I 


1 


1 


1 





11 








1 


1 





12 


1 





1 


1 





13 

















14 


1 














15 





1 











16 


1 


1 











Clear 














1 


All Lights On 





:■ 


n 


' 


1 


On 








1 





1 


Off 








1 


1 


1 


Dim 





1 








1 


Brighten 





1 





' 


1 



already has a preset house code, that 
is not sent ultrasonically. The handheld 
controller is limited to operation on the 
16 channels of the single house code set 
on the command console. 

The serial-input capability of the X- 
10 is not limited to use with ultrasonic 
data transmission. Specific control of 
the receivers can be accomplished by 
injecting a digital command message di- 
rectly into the serial input pin. At least 
one personal computer manufacturer is 
marketing an AC remote-control sys- 
tem using this method. Be advised, 
though, that the X-10 has a live-wire 
ground and any attachment to it should 
be done through optoisolators. 

The receivers 

The receiver end of the system is 
quite sophisticated considering that 
each receiver costs less than $17. All 
receivers (lamp modules, appliance 
modules, and wall switch modules) are 
essentially the same. A block diagram 
of an appliance module is shown in Fig. 
2-b. Also incorporating a custom LSI 
IC, the receiver section monitors the 
AC line, waiting for a coded message 
corresponding to its unique house code 
(A through P) and unit device code (1 
through 16). To turn on channel 10, one 
simply press io and ON. one after the 
other. When the appliance module acti- 
vates, it sounds like a relay energizing. 
In actuality, the appliance modules use 
an inexpensive solenoid to operate a 
15-amp snap-action switch. The lamp 
and wall switch modules use a triac in- 
stead, and have the capability to brighten 
or dim in response to control com- 
mands. The appliance module has only 
on/off capability. Schematics of the 
appliance and lamp modules are shown 
in Figs. 9 and 10. 




FIG 9— APPLIANCE MODULE uses solenoid and 15-amp switch to control devices having high cur- 
rent-requirements. (Courtesy BSR [USA] Ltd.) 



PLUG 



BLACK 



NOTES 

•PARTS UNDER REVIEW 




BLUE 



FIG, 10 — LAMP MODULE can turn on or off, or dim, resistive-load devices up to 300 watts by means 
of triac (lower left). (Courtesy BSR [USA] Ltd.) 



The next step — automatic control 

The X-IO is basically a manual re- 
mote-control system. There are how- 
ever two easy methods to automate the 
controller's activities. One is the BSR 
model TC-20I automatic timer and the 
other is the BUSY BOX, The BUSY 
BOX (available from the MICROMLNT, 
9 17 Woodmere, NY 11598; 516-374- 
6793) allows an Apple II, TRS-80, orS- 
100-based personal computer to control 
the BSR system. 



Security while away from home, and 
convenience while at home, are two of 
the benefits that may be provided by 
using the model TC-201 automatic 
timer. By preprogramming on/off times 
for various lights it is easy to give a 
house a "lived in"' look to discourage 
intruders. The timer has the capacity to 
control up to eight lights or appliances 
and incorporates a built-in green fluo- 
rescent digital clock. Each module can 
be programmed for as many as two "on" 



and "off" times in a 24-hour period. 

We have just barely scratched the 
surface of potential applications for this 
system. Convenience is an easy justifi- 
cation for owning the BSR X-10 but 
environmental, and energy-management, 
considerations also come to mind. In 
combination with a computer, the X-10 
can bring the concept of computer-con- 
trolled living within reach of the average 
person. h-e 



07 

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51 



moimi 



HOW TO 



HOOK UP HOME 
VIDEO SYSTEMS 

CATV converters and VCR's aren't always compatible. 
Here are ways to get around the problem. 



FRANK GATES 

YOU HAVE JUST SPENT THIS YEAR'S 

vacation money on a new video re- 
corder and you are anxious to get it 
home and hook it up. The dealer assured 
you that there would be no installa- 
tion problems — simply follow the direc- 
tions. He was right as long as you are 
hooking it up to a conventional house 
antenna or a 12-channel MATV or 
CATV system. But what happens if 
you are a pay-TV subscriber or your 
cable system offers more than 12 chan- 
nels? In both situations, some sort of a 
decoder or channel selector/converter 
is required for you to be able to receive 
those additional channels and that is 
where you start to have installation 
problems. 

You will find that if you want to 
record the pay-TV channel, you will 
not be able to watch any other channel 
at the same time — which defeats one of 
the biggest features of owning a video 
recorder. Or maybe you spent a little 
more for a programmable video re- 
corder and now you find out that the 
converter or decoder defeats the pro- 
grammable feature of the recorder. I 
am going to show you how to overcome 
those and similar problems, and at the 
same time get the most out of your 
home video system. 

What is a converter box? 

Initially, the most that any cable 
system could offer its subscribers was 
12 channels. That was due basically 
to two things — line loss with coax cable 
limited the cable systems to the VHF 
range of frequencies {or 54-300 MHz) 
and the home receiver would only 
tune in !2 of those VHF channels. 
UHF channels were down-converted 
to VHF at the cable system's antenna 



site and then were delivered to the 
home receiver through the cable sys- 
tem on a locally unused VHF channel. 
In short order, all 12 available channels 
were filled with local VHF or UHF 
stations. 

So what happened when the cable 
systems added more channels'? The only 
way that a home receiver could get 
those additional channels was through 
the use of an external tuning device, 
thus the converter box. 

What that device does is enable the 





CATV IN 

| 54-300 MHi 




CONVERTER 






OUTPUT ON 
CHANNELS 
VHF 




TV 









FIG. 1— CABLE-TV INSTALLATION consists 
of connecting a converter box between the TV 
set and the cable. The converter outputs all 
channels on a preselected VHF channel. 

home receiver to display the additional 
cable channels without any modifica- 
tion to the TV set itself. It is simply a 
tuner/converter that enables you to 
select manually any incoming VHF 
channel (54-300 MHz) and convert it to 
a single conventional VHF channel 
on your TV tuner (i.e. Channel 3 or 4). 
In that manner your receiver is able to 
receive up to 30 or more incoming 
channels simply by having the con- 
verter installed as shown in Fig. I. With 
that type of installation, the TV tuner 
is set to the output channel of the con- 
verter box (i.e. Channel 3 or 4) and all 
channel selecting is done with the con- 
verter itself. 



FIG. 2— ADDING A VIDEOTAPE RECORDER to 
a cable-TV installation consists of connecting 
the VCR between the converter box and the 
TV receiver. With that hookup, however, you 
must watch the same program that the VCR 
is recording. 

Now you install your VCR as shown 
in Fig. 2. That enables the VCR to 
record any channel offered by the con- 
verter box. Again, all of the incoming 
VHF channels must go through the 
converter box and they are delivered 
to the VCR on the output channel of 
the converter box, let's say Channel 3. 
(Notice the absence of any UHF con- 
nections. Everything has now been 
converted to VHF. 

On the front panel of the VCR is a 
switch that is designed to enable you 
to monitor all record/playback func- 
tions in one position and then switch 
over and view any of the incoming 
channels in the other position: thus you 
have the ability to record one channel 
and view another at the same time. 
With the setup shown in Fig. 2, record/ 
playback will be OK but when you try 
to view any other channel while the 
VCR is recording you will Find that 
you are unable to do so. This is because 
when the converter box is installed. 



52 




there is only one channel available to 
the VCR, the output channel of the 
converter box, Channel 3. So when 
you switch the VCR/TV switch on the 
front panel to either position, all you 
can monitor is the output channel of 
the converter box. 

Now take a look at Fig. 3. A two- 
way coax splitter has been added to the 
system and a simple A/B type switch. 
That will enable you to record one 
channel and view any other channel 
from Channel 2 through Channel 13 at the 
same time. The way that this is possible 
is that when you have the A/B switch 
on the A side you have basically the 
same setup as in Fig. 2. The A path 
from the splitter enables you to record 
any of the 30 or more channels that are 
available on the cable system, and then 
while the VCR is recording and the 
switch in the B position, you are able 
to view any of the Channels 2 through 13 
that are now available to the tuner on 
your TV set. 

If you wanted full 30-or-more chan- 
nel capability on the B path of this 
system, it would require another con- 
verter box to be installed between the 
two/way splitter and the A/B switch. 
(I recommend that you spend a few 
extra dollars and get a good quality 
A/B switch, one with good isolation; 
that can save you some headaches in 
the long run.) 

What about the decoders? 

Decoders are what the pay-TV sta- 
tions use to insure that their product 
is only available to those who are pay- 
ing for it. There are several different 
methods that are currently being used 



by the various pay-TV stations across 
the country but how they encode and 
decode the signal does not affect the 
way that their device is integrated 
into the home video system. 

Decoding devices can be treated 
almost the same as a cable TV con- 
verter box! In most cases, the decoder 
is interchangeable with the converter 
box shown in Fig. 3. The decoder will 
have a preselected output channel, 
probably the same channel as the con- 
verter box or the VCR, so the setup in 
Fig. 3 should overcome any of the 
same problems that were caused by the 
converter box. 



CATVIN 



Q 



54.300MHJ 
2-WAY SPLITTER 




CONVERTER 



OUTPUT ON 
CHANNELS 
VHP 



VCR 



A/R 






SWITCH: 



VHP 



TV 




FIG. 3— TWO-WAY SPLITTER AND SWITCH 
enables you to watch a program different 
from the one the VCR Is recording. However, 
you can only watch the standard VHF channels. 



What about programmable VCR's? 

The problem associated with pro- 
grammable VCR's is common to both 
the converter box and the decoder. 
The programmable VCR must have all 
of the channels available to it on their 
own separate frequencies for the pro- 
grammable feature to function properly. 
If those channels go through any type 
of converter device (like those that 
were described earlier), then the VCR's 
tuner must remain tuned to the output 
channel of the converter device. None 
of th<^ installations outlined jojferare 
compatable to a programmable VCR. 
There are several methods to get around 
the problem but the simplest and most 
effective is by using a VHF-to-UHF 
converter. 

What is a VHF-to-UHF converter? 

This converter does exactly what the 
name implies: it converts the entire 
VHF band up to the UHF band. It is 
a simple device that replaces most of 
the components that have been neces- 
sary in the first three figures. 

Figure 4 shows a VHF-to-UHF con- 
verter in use with a programmable 
VCR. The cable signal feeds into the 
VHF input of the device: that is all 
30 or more channels carried at VHF 
frequencies on the cable system. The 
device passes the basic 12 VHF chan- 
nels, (2 through 13) straight through 
and on out the VHF output terminal of 
the device. Now available at the UHF 
output terminal are all of the 30 VHF 
input channels (including Channels 
2 through 13), now at UHF frequencies. 



en 
m 

m 

CO 
m 

CD 

o 



53 





CATV IN 
1 VHF IN 






VHFTOUHF 

CONVERTER 






VHF 
OUT 




UHF 
OUT 






VCR 






VHF 
OUT 




UHF 
OUT 






TV 




FIG, 4— A V 


HF-T< 


j-uhf cor* 


JVER 


TER enables 



you to watch all the cable channels while the 
VCR is recording a different channel. That con- 
nection provides the ideal solution. 

There is no longer any need for the 
cable TV converter box as that device 
makes all of the cable channels avail- 
able to the VCR through the VHF/ 
UHF terminals and now the VCR can 
pass those channels on to the receiver 
in the same manner. The end result is 
that now every thing works just as it 
would on your own house antenna or 
any other 12-channel system. The pro- 
grammable VCR now has all channels 
available at frequencies that will enable 
the programmable feature to work nor- 
mally. You will need the conversion 
chart for those additional cable chan- 
nels that are now available on the UHF 
tuner, it will tell you that cable Channel 
A is now UHF Channel 47, and so on. 
(See Table I.) 

The VCR/TV switch on the front 
panel of the VCR will now function as 
it was originally intended. If you had 
a built-in remote-control device with 
your TV that had been rendered useless 
for channel selection since the cable 
converter box was installed you can 
dust it off and start using it again also). 
One source for the VHF-to-UHF con- 
verter is ETCO Electronics, North 

TABLE 1— WHERE THE CABLE-TV chan- 
nels are moved to in the UHF band when 
using a UHF-to-VHF converter 



O 

2 

o 

rr 

r- 
O 



o 

< 

rr 
54 



CATV7UHF 


CATV/UHF 


2 = 36 


7 = 56 


3=37 


8=57 


4=38 


9=58 


5=40 


10 = 59 


6=41 


11 = 60 




12=61 


A=47 


13 = 62 


B=48 




C=49 


J = 63 


D = 50 


K = 64 


E=51 


L=65 


F = 52 


M=66 


G = 53 


N=67 


H=54 


0=68 


I =55 


P = 69 




Q = 70 




R = 71 



Country Shopping Center, Route No. 
9, Pittsburgh, NY 12901. 

Cable TV plus off-air pay-TV 

Chances are that if you have a cable 
system plus a local pay-TV channel 
available, the cable system will already 
carry that pay-TV channel and make it 
available to you through a normal con- 
verter device that would be compat- 
able with the systems shown earlier or 
through a UHF-to-VHF converter. A 
cable system decoder would also be 
treated in the same manner as the con- 
verter box. 

In the case where the cable system 
does not carry the local pay-TV chan- 
nel, and it is only available through 
off-air reception and you still want to 
have the cable system plus the pay-TV 
channel, you are going to have to use 
a little of each of the systems that have 
been discussed so far. (You are also 
going to be paying a pretty high monthly 
TV bill.) 

Because of all the various possibil- 
ities in different areas of the country 
and the various methods employed. 
Fig. 5 shows a typical solution to that 
kind of" problem and you can modify or 
build on to suit the requirements of 
your particular needs. 

In Fig. 5 both pay-TV and cable are 
kept separate through the entire instal- 
lation. That prevents any adjacent 
problems or other problems due to lack 
of available unused channels to accom- 
modate the preselected output chan- 
nels of the various devices (VCR, de- 
coder, UHF converter). That type of 
installation also eliminates the need 
for any type of manual switching net- 
work, another potential source of mix- 
ing problems. 



PAY-TV IN 



CATV IN 



DECOOER 



VHF 
OUT 



VHFTOUHF 
CONVERTER 



UHF OUT 
ONLY 



VCR 



VHF 



UHF 



TV 



FIG. 5— PAY-TV can be added to a cable-TV 
installation along with a VCR as shown above. 
All the features of a programmable VCR are 
retained. 

The pay-TV signal is processed 
through the decoder and then fed into 
the VHF input terminals of the VCR. 
Most off-the-air decoders have two 
inputs, one for your house system and 
the other for the off-the-air pay-TV 
channel. There is a front panel switch 
that allows you to select either the 
regular house system or the decoded 
pay -TV channel that will be on a pre- 



selected output channel (i.e., Channel 
3). In the installation shown in Fig. 5 
you would simply leave the decoder 
switched to the descramble (premium) 
position and then whenever the pay-TV 
channel is broadcasting it would be 
available to your VCR or TV, decoded 
on Channel 3 (the preselected output 
channel of the device). That would also 
be the only channel on the VHF tuner 
of both the VCR and the TV. 

On the cable side, all of the available 
cable channels would be up-converted 
through the VHF-to-UHF converter 
and would now be available on the 
UHF tuners of both the VCR and the 
TV. (See Table 1 for a channel con- 
version chart.) 

There is one additional modification 
to this type of installation that might 
be necessary if your home video sys- 
tem is readily accessible to your friends 
and neighbors. Anyone who is not famil- 
iar with that type of installation will 
have problems operating the TV set. 
When they switch the tuner over to 
any conventional VHF channel on the 
set itself they will find everything is 
snow except for the single pay-TV 
channel. All of the remaining channels 
have been up-converted and are now 
available only on the UHF tuner. If 
you feel that it is necessary to have the 
regular VHF channels back down on 
the VHF tuner you can do that with 
just a few modifications to the instal- 
lation shown in Fig. 5. 

Start by inserting a two-way coax 
signal splitter on the input side of the 
VHF-to-UHF converter. Leave one 
leg still attached to the VHF input of 
the VHF to UHF converter and run the 
other leg to the input of the decoder 
device that is normally intended for 
your house antenna. It will be neces- 
sary to move the decoder device to a 
physically convenient spot near the TV 
or VCR as you will now have to switch 
the output of the device back and forth 
manually from either the pay-TV chan- 
nel or the VHF Channels 2 through 13. 
Now you're able to leave the system 
with the conventional VHF Channels 2 
through 13 available on the TV for any- 
one who wants to watch TV or you can 
switch back to the setup in Fig. 5 that 
enables your programmable VCR to 
select anything (cable or pay-TV) avail- 
able for recording. 

Helpful hints 

Keep it simple. The fewer active 
devices or switches, the more reliable 
and trouble-free your system will be. 
If you have two or more pay-TV chan- 
nels available in your area, or you want 
to run the output of your VCR to sever- 
al different rooms in your home (or 
maybe you have two or more VCR's, 
or maybe you have all of those), your 
best bet is to use a centrally located 
votitlmted on ptiiit' 104 



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UlMICOpiXl -1 

POBOJ 




Part II— By the end of this section, your robot's arm will be 
operational. Here are instructions for completing 
the arm, and for building several types of hands. 

JAMES A. GUPTON, JR. 



UNICORN-ONE IS A ROBOT THAT YOU CAN 

build for between two- and- four hundred 
dollars, depending on your ingenuity and 
scrounging abilities. It is fully mobile and 
has the ability to use its arms and hands. 
It can be controlled by a cable link to a 
console, by radio control from a console, 
or in conjunction with a computer. 

The first part of this series described 
some of the components used in the 
robot's construction, and covered most of 
the assembly of its manipuiaior(s) 
(arms). 

In this installment we will complete 
Unicorn-One's manipulators and build its 
end-effectors (hands). From time to time 
we will present you with certain options 
that you may or may not want to include 
in your version of the robot. 

Remember that one of this project's 
objectives is to build a working robot, but 
at a reasonable cost. When you start add- 
ing frills — which you may consider ne- 
cessities — that cost is going to go up. It 
might be wisest to start with the essen- 
tials, to prove that what you have set out 
to do can be done, and to add the extras 
later. Unicorn-One was designed with 
that plan in mind and all the options 
described — as well as most extras that 
you'll think of yourself — can be added 
afterward, with no major alterations to 
the robot already constructed. 

Completion of manipulator 

The last part of the manipulator to be 
fabricated is the contractor-bar (we saved 
the easiest for last). That is simply a bar 
of aluminum '/» X 'A X approximately 6 



inches long. The actual length will de- 
pend on how far you want the elbow to 
bend, but we've found that 6 inches is a 
good size to work with. Use a No. 33 bit 
to drill a hole close to each end of the rod 
so it may be connected to the rest of the 
arm with No. 4-40 screws at the two con- 
tractor-bar pivot pieces. See Fig. 9 and 
Fig. 6 (part 1 , last month) for details. 

At this point you arc probably anxious 
to see how (and whether) the elbow 
action of the manipulator works. Before 




FIG. 9— MANIPULATOR, showing contractor- 
bar and its attachment to the two pivot - 

pieces. 

you power it up, though, there is one 
more step that must be taken. If you were 
to turn on the mechanism now there is a 
very good chance that you would uninten- 
tionally allow the threaded rod to travel 
too far . . . and jam. That could prove 
extremely embarrassing. 

To prevent jamming from taking place, 
we have to install limit switches. Those 
are lever-type snap-action switches that 
are placed so that power to the elbow 



motor will be cut when the part in motion 
reaches the desired limit of its travel. 

Both upper- and lower- limit switches 
are used to protect the mechanism during 
motion in either direction. If power is 
applied to the elbow motor through one 
of the limit switches, the threaded rod 
will turn and cause the forearm to move 
up or down. When it has gone as far as it 
can, it will contact the limit switch and 
stop the motor. 

Since we are using DC motors, revers- 
ing the current flow in the windings (con- 
necting the power source "backwards") 
will make them turn in the opposite direc- 
tion. Therefore, to make the arm move 
the other way, the other limit switch sup- 
plies the motor with current of the oppo- 
site polarity. 

Almost any size lever-type, N.C. (A'or- 
mally- Closed) snap-action switch may be 
used, as long as there is room to mount it. 
There is no firm rule as to where the limit 
switches must be located — the objective 
is to place them so that they will be 
turned on by some moving part of the 
arm in time to stop its motion before 
damage occurs. 

Figure 10 shows one possibility for the 
placement of the upper- and lower-limit 
switches. Here, the upper-limit switch is 
attached to the side rod so that its con- 
tacts are opened when it is contacted by 
the upper pivot hinge. The lower is placed 
so it will contact the side rod when the 
arm is lowered and the side rod and con- 
tactor-bar are nearly parallel. There are 
other ways of achieving the same results, 
of course. 



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DC 

F- 

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FINGER 
CONTACTOR-BAR 



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56 



FIG. 10— LIMIT SWITCHES attached to contrac- 
tor-bar and aluminum block on side rod. 

There are two things to bear in mind 
when placing the limit switches. First, 
make sure that positive contact will al- 
ways be made and that there is no possi- 
bility that the switch can be turned on 
accidentally. Second, when taping the 
switches' wires (and those of the other 
electrical parts, such as the motors) in 
place, take care that the tape and wires do 
not impede the action of any of the mov- 
ing parts. 

The wiring of the limit switches, end- 
effectors and motors will be covered in 
some more detail toward the end of this 
section. 

End- effectors 

An arm is of little use without a hand at 
the end of it, so we will present two ele- 
mentary, but serviceable, types of end- 
effectors for you to choose from and give 
you the option of constructing a more 
complex (and expensive) one, should you 
so desire. 

The two basic hand types we'll describe 
are the finger and the claw. Your robot, 
being ambidextrous, can actually have 
one of each, using one for one purpose, 
and one for another. 

The grasping action of both types of 
hand is provided by solenoids — electro- 
magnetic coils with rods through their 
centers. When a current is passed 
through the coils, the rod is either pulled 
into them or pushed out of them. If that 
rod is connected to part of the hand, the 
hand will close (in our case) when power 
is applied to the solenoid. When power is 
cut, the hand opens by means of a spring 
which is either part of the solenoid or part 
of the hand mechanism itself. 

Selection of the solenoids is not criti- 
cal. There are three conditions which 
must be satisfied: voltage, size, and de- 
gree of travel. 

The solenoids should be rated to turn 
on with 12 volts since the robot will 
almost certainly be using a self-contained 
1 2-voit storage battery when it is operat- 
ing under its own power. The size of the 
solenoids will determine the strength of 
its grip. You may want to use a stronger 
solenoid in one hand than in the other to 
allow the robot to perform tasks requiring 




MAKE FROM. 25 ALUMINUM . 

STAND-OFF 



-.0625 



TWIST 90" 



|-« .auu »i i 

I ^a 6a I s gK~ <3> 




MAKE FRONT*"" *"1 - 3D <*~ 
.25 ALUMINUM STAND-OFF 




FIXEO FINGER 



FINGER CONTACTOR-BAR 



MOVEABLE FINSER 



DIMENSIONS IN INCHES 
FIG. 11 — FINGER-TYPE end-effector assembly drawing. Hinge construction is described in text. 

different degrees of delicacy. As for the 
degree of travel (the distance of the sole- 
noid's rod can move) we've found that a 
'/s- to-Vt-inch rod allows the hand to open 
far enough for most applications. 

Finger-type 

Dimensions of the finger-type end- 
effector are shown in Fig. 1 1 and one of 
the completed units in Fig. 12. The mate- 
rial used for that part is '/■* X 'A-inch 
sheet aluminum. The fixed (upper) finger 
is made from a piece 3.3 inches long and 
the movable (lower) finger, from a 3-inch 
one. The angles should be formed by 
placing the metal in a vise and bending as 
evenly as possible. Use a hammer to give 
uniformity to the surface. 

The finger contractor-bar is made of 
'/» X 'A-inch aluminum, drilled at both 
ends. The length depends on the sole- 
noid's travel. As shown in Fig. 1 1 , a half- 
twist is put into that bar. One end of the 
bar is attached to the solenoid, which is 
mounted on the outside of the fixed fin- 
ger, and the other is inserted through a 
slot sawed in the outside edge of the mov- 
able finger and secured with a cotter pin 
or similar device. 

The movable finger is attached to the _, , ,, 

hinge (refer to Fig. 13) by two No. 4-40 (ecto , Gear is non .[ unG , ior , a i, bu t adds to 
screws. The hinge itself is supported at appearance. 




one end by a 7:-inch diameter piece made 
from a section of an aluminum stand-ofF 
with a long No. 4-40 screw acting as the 
hinge pin. The finger/hinge assembly is 



H' 25 ^ ^ — . 75 — ^|* 




FIXED CLAW 



2.00- 




END-EFFECTGR BASE 



TT7-I 



END EFFECTOR BASES AND 
CLAW SECTIONS CUT FROM .fc ALUMINUM PLATE 



HINGED CLAW 



FIG. 13— DETAILS OF HINGE used in finger- 
type end-effector assembly. 

fastened to an end-plate one inch or more 
in diameter and 'A inch thick using No. 
8-32 screws and that, in turn, is mounted 
to the last cross-rod of the manipulator's 
forearm. The original Unicorn -One used 
a non- functional gear to build up the end 
plate and to give the robot a touch of 
class. 

The finished end-effector may be fixed 
horizontally, vertically, or at any angle in 
between. Its position depends on the use 
to which the member will be put. 

Claw-type 

For heavier-duty applications, you 
might want to use a claw-type end-effec- 
tor; that type of hand is shown in Figs. 14 
and 1 5. On V»-inch aluminum plate, use a 
scribe to mark the outline of the two sec- 
tions. Rough-cut the pieces, taking care 
to keep to the outside of the outline to 
allow a margin for error. 

Using a hacksaw on the inside angles of 
the claw may prove to be difficult or even 




T*J-3°h- 



AHM 
SIDE ROD 




12V0C SOLENOID C rq Ss . B ar ROD 



SOLENOID MOUNT CUT C 

FROM .0625 ALUMINUM SHEET 
TO FIT SOLENOID 

ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES 




A: NO. 33 DRILL 
B: TAP 8-32 
C: N0.55DHILL 
BASE DRILL AND TAP 
LOCATION GUIDE 



TORSION SPRING 
(SEE TEXT) 



•USEONE CENTER, OR TWO 
SIDE, MOUNTING HOLES AS NEEDED 
FIG. 14 — CLAW-TYPE end-effector assembly drawing. This is a heavier-duty mechanism then the 
finger-type and you may want one of each. 



impossible. Instead, try drilling a closely- 
spaced series of small holes along the out- 
side of the part. Then, using a cold chisel, 
knock it out and file it to shape, along 
with the rest of the claw. 



Drill two small holes through the two 
claw sections, in the plane of movement 
(parallel to the fiat sides of the claws), to 
pass the cable from the solenoid, which 
can be anchored by a screw to the lower 





PARTS LIST 








Item 


Size 


Quantity 


Supplier's 
part no. 


Supplier 


SUPPLIERS 


Sheet 


.0625 in. thick 


1X7.5 in." 


SA625 


A 


A The Robot Mart G Guardian Electric Mfg. Co. 


aluminum 










Room 1113 Advertising Dept. 


Sheet 


.250 in. thick 


15 X 6 In.' 


SA250-9 


A 


19 W- 34th St. 1550 W. Carroll Ave 


aluminum 










New York, NY 10001 Chicago, IL 60607 


Sheet 


.250 in, thick 


0.5X6 in 


SA250-3 


A 


(Catalog$3.00) (Write (or list of local 


aluminum 










distributors.) 


Sotenoldt 


Size 50, 'AX 
1 1n. 12 VDC 


1 


176801-035 


F 


B Winlred M. Berg, Inc. 

499 Ocean Avenue H Liberty Controls, Inc. 


Soienoidt 


Sae 75, V. X 
I'/rin. 12 VDC 


1 


174610-031 


F 


E. Rockaway, NY 11518 500 Brookforest Avenue 

Shorewood. IL 60431 


Solenoidf 


'kAn. stroke. 
12 VDC 


1 


26 


G 


F Ledex, Inc. 

Box 427 1 Radio Shack 


Solenoldf 


'. m stroke, 
12 VDC 


1 


L26 


H 


Vandalla, OH 45377 Consult your local 

telephone directory. 


Solenoidt 


"D"-(rarae, 12 
VDC 


1 


290001-033 


F 


NOTES: Items marked wilh " * " were al- 


Snap-action 


Subminlature 


4 


275-017 


1 


ready specified in the parts list for 


switch 


roller-tever- 
lype, 5-amp 








Part One of this series. Items 
marked with "t" are to be select- 


Snap-action 


Submimalufe 


4 


275-016 


1 


ed according to the builder's re- 


switch 


lever- type, 
5-amp 








quirements. Components may 
also be available from suppliers 


Machine 


2-56 X % 


8 






other than those indicated. Some 


screws 










suppliers have minimum order re- 


Machine 


4-40 X % 


11 






quirements. Inquire before plac- 


screws 










ing order. 



» 

m 
TJ 
-H 
m 
£ 
on 
m 

30 
CO 

o 



57 




FIG. 15— ASSEMBLED CLAW-TYPE end-efiec- 
tor. Piano wire may be used to connect solenoid 
■nd lower portion ol claw. 

claw. A small hole should also be drilled 
into ihefla! side of each claw into which 
the ends of the spring which will keep the 
hand open when the solenoid is not 
turned on. 

Robot manipulator-claw springs are 
not an off-the-shelf item in most places, 
so you'll probably have to make your own. 
Figure 16 will give you an idea of what 
you'll need. If you haven't taken apart 
any clocks recently, you might try using a 
section of the type of spring used to close 




i faulikl.lJ^Jju^uJajljijijJiW rtri 



2 
O 
a: 

i- 
o 



O 
Q 
< 

or 
58 



FIG. tft— CLAW-TYPE end-effector showing 
homemade torsion spring. Tent gives details. 

screen doors in the summer. Material 7ji- 
in. in diameter seems to work out well. 

The tension of the spring will affect the 
claw's actions, if it's too strong, the claw 
will not close properly and the robot's 
grip will suffer, and if it's too weak, there 
can be problems with keeping it open. If 
that sounds confusing, bear in mind that 
the purpose of this particular spring is to 
hold the claw open, not closed. 

Attachment to the manipulator is simi- 
lar to that for the finger- type end -effec- 
tor, but you may decide to mount the 
solenoid (which will probably be larger 
than the one used for the other) directly 
on the forearm and feed the cable 
through to the claw. 

You might want to line this hand — or 
possibly both— with foam rubber or a 
similar material to give it a better grasp 
on slippery objects. 

A more elaborate type of end-effector 
is shown in Fig. 17. It also uses the claw- 
type mechanism but has an additional 
degree of freedom — a term referring to 
the different ways a joint can move. 
(Your own arm, for example, has three 
degrees of freedom: It can twist, move up 
and down, and move from side- to- side.) 




FIG. 17 — ROTATABLE end-effector mentioned in text. Stepper motor supplies wrist action. 



HAND+12V(L1> 




_ 8-TERMINAL 
- BARRIERSTRIP 
(SEE TEXT) 



CONTRACTOR 
BAR 



H2V 

i 



ORANGE 



GREEN 



=4 



°4 

r 



ft GNO 



BLUE 



FIG. 18— WIRING DIAGRAM for manipulator and end-effector. Color-code wires in order to avoid 
contusion. 

have electrical continuity. 

Now. with the limit switches installed, 
you can check out the actual operation of 
the manipulators and end-effectors. In 
fact, this is the best time to do so. (If you 
were to wait any longer, and the arm were 
attached to the body, you might have to 
do quite a bit of tearing-apart to get to, 
arid correct, any problem that showed 
up.) 

The parts list shows sources of supply 
used by the author. There are certain to 
be others, though, possibly more accessi- 
ble to you. In fact, many of the materials 
specified can probably be found, in a 
form close enough to work with, at your 
local hardware or building-supplies store. 
Even closer — and more economical — 
may be your basement or a nearby junk- 
yard. 

The next part of the Unicorn-One 
series will concern itself with design con- 
siderations and construction of the ro- 
bot's mobility base — the section that gets 
it from place to place. Also included will 
be details of the main 32-position termi- 
nal strip, which will be the heart of the 
robot's electrical distribution and control 
system. The design of that section will 
permit easy changeover, when you're 
ready, from manual control by cable-con- 
nected console to radio control and, later, 
to control by microcomputer. R-E 



The added mobility is gained by plac- 
ing a stepper motor between the arm and 
the hand. The stepper motor's shaft turns 
through a small portion of an arc each 
time a short electrical pulse is applied to 
it. The result, if enough pulses are 
applied, is a twist of the wrist — and an 
added degree of freedom! 

Because those pulses are best generated 
by a digital electronic circuit — which we 
have not yet discussed— we'll postpone a 
description of the construction of this 
type of hand until we start putting togeth- 
er Unicorn-One's electronics. For certain 
applications, though, it can be indispensl- 
ble. 

Wiring and testing 

A wiring diagram for the motor, sole- 
noids, and microswitches, with their asso- 
ciated controls, is shown in Fig. 18. The 
eight-position terminal strip illustrated is 
actually part of a 32-position strip, which 
will terminate all motor and switch con- 
nections. Since 32-position terminal 
blocks are difficult to locate, do the best 
you can with smaller ones — but allow for 
at least 32 positions. That will give you 
several extra positions which you can lat- 
er use for your own options. 

Color-code the wiring to simplify cir- 
cuit tracing and make sure that every- 
thing goes to the right place and that you 




run 



r^R»^(gSU^MZ 



PIEZO- \APPLICATIONS 

ELECTRIC 

SOUNDER 



Solid-state "beepers" have a variety of interesting 
applications. This should give you a few ideas. 



CALVIN R. GRAF, W5LFM 

IS IT A BUZZER? IS IT A SOUNDER'.' THOSE 

are good questions to ask, because the 
piezoelectric sounder is partly both 
but unique in its own right. It doesn't 
buzz, so it's not a buzzer. It doesn't 
click like the telegraph sounder of 
days past, so it's not a clicker. But 
it does sound out with a pure tone 
when a DC voltage is applied to it, and 
it operates on the piezoelectric effect. 
So it is accurately called a piezoelec- 
tric sounder. 

First introduced by P. R. Mallory 
about 15 years ago, the sounder was 
called the Sonalert. It immediately 
found wide acceptance by the elec- 
tronic circuit-and-system designer 
because it emits a near spectrally- 
pure 2900-Hz tone when a DC voltage 
between 1 and 28 volts is applied to 
its terminals. The piezoelectric sounder 
has been used extensively in appli- 
cations where a low-current annun- 
ciator is needed. Those include wrist 
watches, alarm clocks, radio beepers, 
telephone sets, smoke detectors, test- 
ing devices, electronic games, intru- 
sion alarms, automobile warning and 
monitoring, office machines, elec- 
tronic calculators, timers, and com- 
puter peripherals. Many manufac- 
turers produce piezoelectric sounders 
today. A typical unit is shown in Fig. I. 

A Sound Approach 

Sound waves, as you know, are 
variations in the rate of change in the 
sound-pressure level. A frequency, or 
tone, is a measure of the air-pressure 
variation. A foghorn produces slow 
variations in air pressure. The whine 
of a jet engine is produced by many 
variations in air pressure. A ride in a 
fast elevator or a passing weather 
front are also examples of air-pressure 




FIG. 1— THE PIEZOELECTRIC SOUNDER is a 
low-current device that produces an almost 
pure tone. This is a Sonatert, made by the 
Mallory Components Group of Emhart Corp. 

changes. However, those are not rapid 
enough for us to hear as sounds, but 
we do feel the effect on our ears or 
see the effect on a barometer. 

What frequencies are most pleasing 
to the ear? Research has shown that 
sound-pressure changes between 
700 and 900 Hz are most pleasing to 
the ear. Those frequencies which 
attract our attention the most lie be- 
tween 2000 and 4000 Hz. And you 
probably well know that a pulsing 
sound will really get our attention, as 
compared to a continuous tone. 

Ways to sound off 

In the army, everyone learns to 
"sound off' by counting "one, two, 
three, four." In electronics there are 
currently three ways to produce an 
alerting sound. 

Electromechanical — The familiar 
buzzer is probably over 1 00 years 
old. That type of audio producer con- 
sists of a mechanically -tuned lever 
with contacts that vibrate back and 
forth much like a relay using breaker- 
point switching. The making and break- 
ing of the current, however, generates 



radio-frequency interference (RFI) 
that can be detected beyond 10,000 
MHz. The breaker-point lever is con- 
nected to a metal disc that vibrates the 
air to produce a sound. This type emits 
a buzzing sound and has a high har- 
monic content that is usually harsh 
sounding. Others of this type use a 
small motor to vibrate against a metal 
or plastic disc to produce a sound. 

Speaker-Oscillator — This type of 
sound producer is a speaker (usually 
very small and compact) used to de- 
liver sound generated by an electronic 
oscillator circuit. 

Piezoelectric Transducer or Sounder — 
Truly solid state, this type uses a thin 
ceramic element bound to a brass disc. 
The element is connected to a built- 
in oscillator that drives the ceramic 
causing it to vibrate a brass disc which 
flexes and generates a sound wave. This 
type of sounder is a low-power device 
that produces a high audio output, and 
has a long operational life. The piezo- 
ceramic sounder by itself (without its 
transistor driving oscillator circuit) trans- 
forms AC voltages to sound- pressure 
waves. It will also generate an AC 
voltage across its terminals when stimu- 
lated, or vibrated, by a sound-pressure 
wave. (Is it a speaker or is it a micro- 
phone?) 

Basic circuits and uses 

The basic circuit for the piezoelec- 
tric sounder is shown in Fig. 3. It can 

be used in circuits built around TTL, w 

CMOS, 9- volt transistor batteries, m 

and 1 2- volt automobile batteries. The h 

sound-output level increases directly s 

with applied voltage, starting near I ^ 

volt and increasing to 20 volts. A higher 3 

voltage, approaching 30 VDC, can be <o 

used if applied for short periods of § 

59 



time (a few seconds). The piezoelec- 
tric sounder is readily available from 
many parts sources and its characteris- 
tics are shown in Table I . In Fig. 3. we 
show a new symbol for the piezoelec- 
tric sounder using two wavy lines to 
indicate that it generates acoustic 
energy. A singie wavy line (sine wave 
cycle) indicates a generator but with- 
out further designation as to whether 
it is a power generator, an audio gener- 
ator, or a signal (RF) generator. 

Table 1— PIEZOELECTRIC 
SOUNDER CHARACTERISTICS 



FLASHER LED 



Typical Solid-state Piezoelectric 
buzzer 

Frequency 4.8 kHz 

Voltage 1.5 to 20 VDC 

Current 9 mA at 9 VDC 

Size 1 3/8" by 3/8" thick 




FIG. 2— THIS SOLID-STATE BUZZER operates 
with 1 .5 to 20 volts DC and delivers a 4.B-kHz 
signal. 

Flashing and sounding circuits 

By adding a flasher LED and series- 
dropping resistor as in Fig. 4, we are 
able to make the piezoelectric sounder 
pulse or beep, at the flash rate of the 
flasher LED. (Be careful and do not 
confuse the flasher LED with Na- 
tional's LM3909 LED flasher/oscil- 
lator.) The 1000-ohm resistor limits the 
voltage applied to the flasher LED 
(nominally 5 VDC). In the circuit of 
Fig. 4, the pulse rate of the sounder is 
3 PPS. The pulsating sounder can be 
used in automobile turn signals and elec- 
tronic and electrical trouble-shooting. 
When mounted on the rear of a vehicle 
and powered from the back-up light 
circuit it becomes an automotive back- 
up warning device. The flasher LED is 
readily available from several manufac- 
turers. The flasher is an IC that switches 



1 TO 20V DC 

o 



o 
z 
o 

p 

Lu 
1 

1 



DIODE ![ 



.PIEZOELECTRIC 
\S0UNDER 



PIEZOELECTRIC 
SCUNDEH 



OPERATION 

FIQ, 3— BASIC CIRCUIT AND SYMBOL lor the 
piezoelectric sounder. Sound energy is pro- 
duced with as little as 1 mA, 





FIG. 4— The PIEZOELECTRIC SOUNDER is 
made to pulse at a 3 pulse-per-second rate by 
adding a flasher LED. 

Table 2— SOUNDER AND FLASH RATE 
vs. voltage and capacitance (refer to Fig. 5) 



Capaci- 




Flash/ 


tance, C 


Voltage 


Sound Rate 


47*:F 


3 VDC 


6 pulses in 
5 seconds 




6 VDC 


4 pulses in 

5 seconds 




9 VDC 


No output 


33^F 


3 VDC 


4 PPS 




6 VDC 


2 PPS 




9 VDC 


No output 


100>F 


3 VDC 


4 PPS 
(soft note) 




6 VDC 


2 PPS 




9 VDC 


No output 



voltage to a LED at a 3 PPS rate. Cur- 
rent drawn at 5 VDC is about 20 mA. 
The cost is under $2. 

We vary the pulse of the piezoelec- 
tric sounder by connecting a capacitor 
across it as in Fig. 5. Now the flasher- 
LED flash rate is sensitive to applied 
voltage as shown in Table 2. 

Light Input to Photocell — When we 
place a photocell across the piezo- 
electric sounder, we make the circuit 
sensitive to ambient light. Figure 6 
shows a circuit that will make the 
sounder and LED pulse at 3 PPS when 



PIEZOELECTRIC 
SOUNDER 




FLASHER LED 



C ^f* 



FIG. 5— VARYING PULSE RATES are produced 
by placing a capacitor across the sounder. 
(See Table 2.) 



e vdc * 



FLASHER LED 




IN LIGHT 

LEO PULSES 3 PPS 
PIEZQELECTRIC50UNDEH SOUNDS AT 3 PPS 

IN DARK 

LED LIGHTS CONTINUOUSLY 
PIEZOELECTRIC SOUNDER SOUNDS 
CONTINUOUSLY 

FIQ. 6— ADD A PHOTOCELL to make the 
pulsing sounder respond to different light 
levels, 



the photocell is illuminated (low photo- 
cell resistance), but will remain on 
continuously in the dark (high photo- 
cell resistance). In Fig. 7, we see a cir- 
cuit arrangement that draws no current 
in its standby, or dark mode (high 
photocell resistance), but begins puls- 
ing when the light level reaches a cer- 
tain ievel (low photocell resistance). 
The circuit gets its power from a 9-volt 
battery. 

We will now look at a very simple 
circuit that uses the low-current char- 
acteristics of the piezoelectric sounder. 
With it, we can check for continuity, 
or for voltage in a circuit. The few 
components required for this simple 
tester can be assembled in the plastic- 
top cap of a shave cream or other spray 
can. Use two 24-inch long leads with 
alligator clips for test leads. 

Continuity Tester — The circuit in 
Fig, 8 is arranged so when the switch 
is set for continuity, a small amount 
of current is drawn through the piezo- 
electric sounder and the external cir- 
cuit under test. By shorting the probes, 
you can establish an audio reference 



4.7K 



\ 9V 



<$' 



FLASHER LEO 



§ 



PIEZOELECTRIC 
SOUNDER 



FIG. 



PHOTOCELL 
7— CONNECT A PHOTOCELL in series 



to turn the circuit off in the dark (high photo- 
cell resistance). Light will cause the sounder 
to pulse. 



'■& 



PIEZOELECTftlCSOUNDER 

— n 



9V 



1 — Q O- 



CONTINUITY TEST b TEST AGE 



RED LEAD + 1 1 _ BLACK LEAD 

TEST LEADS 

FIG. 8— CONTINUITY /VOLTAGE TESTER 
using the piezoelectric sounder. Observe 
correct polarity for voltage tests. 

level for zero ohms. An open circuit 
is obviously infinity and no sound is 
produced. With a good ear and a good 
battery, you will be able to hear an 
indication for 20K to 30K resistance in 
the circuit under test. That arrange- 
ment is good for testing continuity 
of light bulbs, resistors, diodes, coils, 
transistors, motors, relays, etc. When 
you test volume controls for continuity, 
you can spot a "scratchy" control 
because the audio level of the tone of 
the piezoelectric sounder will shift 
abruptly, 

continued on page 99 



run 

D 




Better than DOLBY B? ft 

New Noise Reduction System 
for Tape Recorders 



LEN FELDMAN 

CONTRIBUTING HI-FI EDITOR 



EVERY CASSETTE TAPE-DECK USER OWES 

a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ray Dolby. 
His introduction of the Dolby B noise- 
reduction system more than ten years 
ago was largely responsible for the 
wide acceptance of cassette tape re- 
cording as a true high-fidelity program 
storage medium. Although the cassette 
format delivers much higher perfor- 
mance quality today than it did ten 
years ago, it is still far from being a 
"noise-free" system. 

The Dolby B noise-reduction system 
represents a clever choice of compro- 
mises that provide a reasonable amount 
of noise reduction with a minimum of 
undesirable side effects, at low cost. 
Those compromises involve limiting 
the total amount of noise reduction as 
well as the frequency bandwidth of the 
system. Until now, the tape-recording 
enthusiast has had to be content with 
the 8-tO-10 dB of signal-to-noise im- 
provement of the Dolby B system. 
While modem cassette decks almost 
universally have built-in Dolby B, 
tremendous strides in the quality of 
pre-recorded program sources and a 
growing interest in live recording de- 
mand further improvements in cassette 
deck performance. Critical listeners 
often feel that the Dolby system does 
not provide enough noise reduction 
for those more esoteric recording ap- 
plications. 

Principles of noise reduction 

Nakamichi first became interested 
in developing a better noise- reduction 
system several years ago, after eval- 
uating a professional noise-reduction 
system called Telcom C4D developed 
by Telefunken of Germany, According 
to Nakamichi, that system (although 



This new noise-reduction system from Nakamichi provides 
a dynamic range 18 dB greater than Dolby B. 



too expensive for consumer applica- 
tions) provided an unusually large ratio 
of noise reduction and was particularly 
free of such undesirable side effects 
as noise pumping or signal coloration. 
A cooperative effort between Tele- 
funken and Nakamichi has resulted in a 
modified consumer version of that 
noise-reduction system, Nakamichi 
calls it High-Corn II. Nakamichi's first 
commercial version of the system is in 
the form of a separate add-on device, 
(see Fig. I) that can be added to any 
high-quality cassette deck. 




Fig, 1— HIGH-COM II noise-reduction system 
cart be used with any high-quality cassette 
deck. 

Before discussing the specifics of 
the High-Com II noise-reduction sys- 
tem, let us examine the basic principle 
behind noise-reduction systems. The 
compander concept that forms the 
basis of all noise-reduction systems is 
quite simple. Before recording, the 
dynamic range of the program is com- 
pressed by a circuit, the signal of which 
is controlled by the signal level itself. 
Once compressed, the program "fits" 
on the tape. The weakest signals are 
amplified and recorded at a level well 
above the tape noise while strongest 
signals are compressed and recorded 
below the level at which distortion 
occurs because of tape saturation. 
During playback, the exact converse 
action takes place: Strong signals are 
expanded or amplified to compensate 
for the compression they receive during 
recording, while the level of weak 



signals is reduced, restoring them to 
the relative intensity they had before 
recording. 

While the basic principle sounds 
simple, Nakamichi soon discovered 
that designing a cost-effective noise- 
reduction system that works well in 
conjunction with a cassette deck is not 
an easy task. Each element of the sys- 
tem had to be carefully considered and 
optimized. If necessary, a compromise 
between optimum and practical had to 
be selected. 

The ultimate choice of the compres- 
sion/expansion ratio is a good example. 
For an expander to be free of noise 
pumping, most of the recorded signal 
must be well above the noise floor of 
the tape. Since the cassette deck's low 
speed limits the maximum signal levels 
that can be recorded on the tape, a 
relatively high compression ratio is 
needed to maintain a great enough 
margin between low-level signals and 
noise. If too high a compression ratio 
is chosen, however, it becomes diffi- 
cult to recover the original dynamics 
during expansion and the entire system 
becomes very sensitive to slight level 
variations, such as those caused by 
inconsistencies in the tape coating 
itself. 

New noise reduction system 

In the High-Corn II system, a 2: 1 
compression ratio is used to get a 20- 
dB improvement in signal-to-noise. 
The 2:1 ratio is maintained throughout 
most of the dynamic range of the sys- 
tem, except at very low input levels, 
where the ratio is restored to 1:1, That 
largely linear-transfer characteristic of 
the system makes it relatively immune 
to minor mismatches in level. The 2:1 



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ratio is not enough, however, to over- 
come noise pumping completely. That 
effect is caused by a compander at fre- 
quencies other than those of the input 
signal. 

A good example of that is recording 
a single tone. Noise in the immediate 
vicinity of the tone's frequency will be 
masked by the tone signal itself; but 
noise well above or below that fre- 
quency is not masked. It is the modula- 
tion of that unmasked noise by the 
action of the compander that is often 
noticeable and objectionable. What 
makes matters even worse is that with 
20 dB of basic noise reduction there is 
less of a constant overall hiss level to 
mask the noise modulation. 

Both the professional Dolby-A and 
Telcom C4D noise- reduction systems 
effectively eliminate that type of noise 
modulation by processing the signal in 
four frequency bands. In other words, 
companding action in one frequency 
range is controlled separately from that 
in another. Such a complex configura- 
tion is far too costly for a consumer 
version of either system. The Dolby B 
system combats the problem by limit- 
ing its operation to only the high fre- 
quencies. The action of Dolby B can be 
understood by referring to Fig, 2, a 
sequential trace of residual tape noise, 
using a spectrum analyzer over the 
range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Vertical 



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Fig, 2— HOW DOLBY B compensates for high- 
frequency noise. Action begins above ikHz, 

sensitivity is 10 dB per box. Note that 
the two plots (without and with Dolby 
B turned on) are identical from around 
20 Hz to just beyond I kHz. At that 
point the action of the Dolby B system 
reduces high-frequency noise at a 
sliding or increasing rate (lower noise 
trace) out to the limits of the sweep. 
That makes sense for cassette tape be- 
cause the overwhelming proportion of 
noise at the slow tape speed is high- 
frequency hiss. 

However, with 20 dB of noise reduc- 
tion provided by the High-Corn II sys- 
tem, it is no longer acceptable to con- 
centrate solely on the higher frequen- 
cies. A 20-dB reduction of hiss with 
no corresponding reduction at low fre- 
quencies would only make low-fre- 
quency noise equally more audible. 
The High-Corn II noise- reduction sys- 



tem deals with that problem and min- 
imizes noise pumping still farther by 
processing the signal in two bands. 
Using more than two frequency bands 
would, of course, provide added insur- 
ance against noise pumping, but the 
benefits had to be weighed against the 
cost. The Telefunken High Com IC, 
developed for the High Com //, pro- 
vides a wide selection of attack and 
release times, and with two bands of 
processing, an appropriate set of dy- 
namic characteristics could be selected 
for each frequency range. Comparing 
the noise-reduction results obtained 
by using Dolby B (Fig. 2) with those 
obtained by using the High Com II 
system (Fig. 3), both the increased 
amount of noise reduction and the fact 
that some noise reduction is taking 
place even at mid- to-low frequencies 
are obvious. 



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Fig. 3— EFFECT OF High-Corn II on residual 
tape noise. Compare this with Dolby B in Fig. 2. 



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-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 +10 +20 
INPUT LEVEL-dE 

Fig. 4— ENCODING/DECODING and input/ 
output characteristics of the High-Corn II 
system. 

Figure 4 shows the encode and de- 
code characteristics of the High Com 
II system and its input/output charac- 
teristics. The dB shown is the refer- 
ence level of the system and the level 
recorded on the tape for that reference 
is 200 nVVb/m (Nano-Webers Meter — 
measure of magnetic flux-density). The 
degree of encoding or decoding is small 
at low frequencies, increasing as the 
frequencies get higher. Depending 
upon frequency, below a certain level 
the encode-to-decode ratio becomes 
1:1, suppressing the breathing noise 
changes in signal levels cause. 



Figure 5 shows the record -play am- 
plitude response and noise analysis 
of the High Com II system coupled to 
a Nakamichi Model 680 cassette deck 
using metal particle cassette tape. It 
was supplied to us by Nakamichi. The 
pen traces on the lower right corner of 
the figure show wideband noise levels 




10 20 



HIGH-DOM II IN 
100 200 U 1K2K 10 20 V^ 



K K 



FREQUENCY-Hi 



D/B 



A C| 
UN 
Fig. 5— HIGH COM II record /playback amplitude 
response and noise analysis. 

with various weighting filters. Note 
that the noise reduction with no weight- 
ing filter applied is a full 19 dB. With 
"A" weighting, the noise reduction 
ts exactly 20 dB, or about 1 2 dB greater 
than with the Dolby B system. Actually 
the increase in dynamic range is some- 
what better than 20 dB because, unlike 
the Dolby B system, the High Com II 
system continues its companding action 
beyond the reference dB level. 

Since 3% total harmonic distortion 
on that tape deck normally occurs at a 
true recording level of +6 dB (0 dB 
equals 200 nWb/m), the 2: 1 compression 
level permits an input level of + 12 dB 
as a maximum. That accounts for the 
high output of the +10 dB trace in Fig. 
5. It would normally be lower because 
of saturation, but with the 2: 1 com- 
pression, the actual record level reach- 
ing the tape is equivalent to +5 dB. 
Since the "A" weighted noise with the 
High Com II system turned on is 74 dB 
below dB, the total dynamic range 
available, referenced to the 3% total 
harmonic distortion point, is 74 dB plus 
12 dB or 86 dB! That is a full 18 dB 
better than the dynamic range that is 
available (referenced to 3% total har- 
monic distortion level) using Dolby 
noise reduction. 

To preserve high-frequency tran- 
sients, any compander must have a 
fast attack time. It must recognize an 
abrupt change in signal level quickly, 
or the characteristics of the transient 
will be altered or destroyed. On the 
other hand, if the compander has too 
fast an attack time, it will tend to fol- 
contiiiiied on page 104 



62 



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B.l.C./Avnet Model T-3 
Cassette Deck 



CIRCLE 106 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



LEN FELDMAN 

CONTRIBUTING HI-FI EDITOR 



AS MOST OF YOU KNOW. CASSETTE DECKS ALL 

operate at a single, standard speed of IVi 
inches-per-second. All, that is, except B.I.C./ 
Avnet Corporation's new series of stereo cas- 
sette decks, each of which operates at that 
speed and also at twice that speed, or 3V< ips. 
Three such two-speed decks are now being 
marketed by B.l.C./Avnet, and, in all likeli- 
hood, even more models (probably higher 
priced than the first models) are on the way. 
There are many industry rumors about how 
B.l.C./Avnet was able to "break with tradi- 
tion" (not to mention the Philips agreement 
that presumably governs all cassette-deck 
manufacturers, since Philips originated the 
cassette-tape format), and offer speed options 
in cassette decks. In any case, B.l.C./Avnet 
has done it and assures everyone that the com- 
pany is on safe legal ground. We certainly hope 
so because with increased speed comes vastly 
increased performance capability. 

Of the three two-speed decks now available, 
we chose to test the third — the top-of-the-line 
model T-3, which is the first of those decks to 
offer true three- head operation and its related 
tape-monitoring capability. In the mode! T-3, 
the record and play heads are electrically sepa- 
rate components, but are mounted in a com- 
mon housing. As a result, no tape azimuth 
alignment is required, as would be the case 
when three-head decks use physically sepa- 
rated record and play heads. 

A front-panel view of the model T-3 is 
shown in Fig. I . The left-hand section of the 
black front panel contains the cassette com- 
partment; when the stop/eject push-button is 
depressed, the cassette door opens smoothly 
and slowly (the action is viscous-damped). 
Additional piano-key-type tape- trans port con- 
trols below the cassette compartment include a 

RECORD switch; REWIND, PLAY, and FAST-FOR- 
WARD switches; and a pause switch. Tape 
motion is controlled by a dual-capstan tape- 
drive system powered by a two-speed DC ser- 
vomotor. The power on/off push-button is 



located in the lower left-hand corner. 

To the right of the cassette compartment are 
a three-digit reset table tape counter, a MEMO- 
RY push-button (that permits you to rewind 
the tape to a preset zero point on the digit 
counter), and a pair of calibrated peak-reading 
record-level meters that can be accurately read 
all the way from —40 dB to +5 dB. Note that 
"0 dB" on those record-level meters corre- 
sponds to a level of 200 nanowebers -per- meter 
(rather than the lower 1 85 or 160 nW-per- 
meter often used as calibration points for 
cassette-deck meters). Keep that in mind when 
evaluating the headroom figures cited later in 
this article. An innovatively designed LED 
indicator is located between the two peak-read- 
ing meters. As long as peak record levels are in 
a safe (or low-distortion) area, the LED glows 
green. If instantaneous record levels exceed 
the value considered acceptable by B.I.C./ 
Avnet, the LED magically changes color and 
glows red, warning the user to back off on 
record levels or suffer the consequences of 
over-recording and high distortion levels dur- 
ing playback. Below the two meters are a pair 
of large, concentrically- mounted record-level 
controls, while to the right are an out put- level 
control and a separate phone output-level con- 
trot. The deck can therefore handle head- 
phones with a wide range of sensitivities, and 
you can adjust the sound level from the head- 
phones without affecting main output level 
that is being fed to the rest of the system. 

The lower edge of the front panel contains a 
speed-selector switch (with settings for IVi or 
3 ! /t ips); and an equalization-selector switch 
(with settings for either 1 20 or 70 m s )- There is 
a three-position bias-selector switch (marked 
low, normal, or high, rather than being refer- 
enced to specific tape types); and a three-posi- 
tion RECORD switch with settings labeled safe. 
Ready, and mute. In addition, there's a Dolby- 
mode switch (with a copy and ON position that 
lets you use the built-in Dolby circuitry for 
purposes other than just tape recording and 



MANUFACTURERS PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS*: 

("Items shown to either side of slash mark correspond to operation at 1% ips/3% ips 
running speeds.) 

Frequency Response (±3 dB): 70 ^s or CrOj tape, 25 Hz- 19 kHz/25 Hz-22 kHz. S/N 
Ratio. (A-Weighted): 70 M s tape, 55/58 dB (Dolby Off); 63/67 dB (Dolby on). Wow- 
and-FluHer (WRMS): 0.05/0.035%; unweighted. 0.09/0.06%. Harmonic Distortion: 70 
fts tape, 1.8/1.5%, at VU record level. Fast-Forward or Rewind Speed (C-90): 45 
seconds, Input Sensitivity: line, 200 mV. Output Level: 2 volts. Meter Type & Range: 
peak reading, —40 to +5 dB. Power Requirements: 105/135 volts, 50/60 Hr, 35 
watts. Dimensions: 17"/.. W X 6V. H X 10V. inches D. Weight: 14.8 lbs. Suggested 
Retail Price: $529.95. 



RADIO-ELECTRONICS AUDIO LAB 

R.IE.A.L. 
SOUND 

B.LCVAVNET T-3 
CASSETTE DECK 

SUPERB 

Copyright ' Gornsback Publteatiofis Inc . 1979 



playback); and an MPX filter switch. That is 
useful when recording stereo FM programs 
off-the-air from tuners whose outputs contain 
significant subcarrier high-frequency products 
that might upset Dolby operation and calibra- 
tion, or might beat with the deck's bias oscilla- 
tor: Three pushbuttons to the right of those 
switches select source of tape monitoring, 
introduce a record- calibration test tone, and 
select microphone or line inputs. (Mixing of 
microphone and line inputs is not possible with 
this deck.) Left and right microphone-input 
jacks, as well as a phone-output jack (stereo) at 
the lower right, complete the panel layout. 
Line-input and line-output connections are 
both made at the rear panel through phono-tip 
jacks. 

Lab measurements 

To evaluate and measure the two-speed 
deck's performance properly, we treated the 
unit as though it were two separate decks: one 
operating at a standard I 'A-ips speed, the other 
at the increased speed of 3Vi ips. So many per- 
formance characteristics change when the 
speed is increased (all of them for the better, 
by the way) that we have shown our results for 
slow and fast operation separately. Table I 
summarizes our results at 1 V.-ips operation, 
while Table 2 shows measurements obtained at 
the higher 3Vi-ips speed. We made all mea- 
surements using TDK-type AD C-90 cassettes 
as the "standard" sample, while TDK-type SA 
C-90 cassettes were used for all measurements 
in the 70-microsecond equalization setting. As 
mentioned earlier, the manufacturer did not 
assign generic tape names to the three bias 



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positions on the front-panel switch. They do, 
however, list recommended bias-switch 
settings for different brands and grades of 
tape. In many instances, the settings are not 
the same for high speed as they are for the 
standard speed. For example, we found (and 
BJ.C./Avnet recommends) that the high bias 
setting should be used for TDK-SA tape 
(whose bias requirements are similar to those 
of chrome tape) at both low and high speeds. 
However, for the TDK- AD tape we found that 
using the low bias setting at slow speed and the 
high (not the normal) setting at high speed 
yielded best overall results with respect to fre- 
quency response, signal-to-noisc (S/N) ratio 
and distortion. 

Since the Model T-3 is a three-head tape 
deck, we were able to conduct sweep-frequen- 
cy measurements (in addition to point-by- 
point plots or tabulations) of overall record/ 
play response, That was done for the TDK-SA 
tape at both the slow-speed (Fig. 2) and high- 
speed (Fig. 3) modes for -20-dB and 0-dB 
record levels. The frequency-response figures 
shown in Tables 1 and 2 are those we obtained 
at the —20-dB record level. The upper traces 
in Figs. 2 and 3 show a particularly interesting 
phenomenon: At the slow 1'A-ips speed, the 
typical high-frequency rolloff caused by tape 
saturation occurs. In contrast, at the 3V.-ips 
speed, even when the frequency sweep is made 
at a record level of dB, response remains 
virtually flat all the way out to 20 kHz! What 
that means is enormously increased headroom 
at high frequencies, in addition to other bene- 
fits (abundantly evident when you compare the 
measured distortion, signal-to-noise, and wow- 
and-flutter specs shown in Tables 1 and 2). 









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By changing the spectrum analyzer's sweep 
mode from frequency log (as shown in Figs. 2 
and 3) to linear (from approximately Hz to 
20 kHz), we were able to display the improve- 
ment graphically in both S/N and third-order 
distortion that is gained by increasing the tape 
speed to 37« ips. Figure 4 shows a 1 -kHz signal 
recorded onto the TDK-SA sample tape (this 
signal appears as the tall spike to the left in 
Fig. 4). On the right another spike represents 



RADIO-ELECTRONICS PRODUCT TEST REPORT 
TABLE 1 



Manufacturer: B.I.C./Avnet 



FREQUENCY RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS 

Frequency response, standard tape (Hz-kHz ±dB) 
Frequency response, CrO s tape (Hz-kHz + dB> 
Frequency response, other {see text) (Hz-kHz ±dB) 
DISTORTION MEASUREMENTS (RECORD/PLAY) 
Harmonic distortion -3 VU^I kHz)(%) 
Harmonic distortion VU (1 kHz) (%) 
Harmonic distortion +3 VU (1 kHz)(%> 
Record level ior 3% THD (dB) 

SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO MEASUREMENTS 

Standard tape, Dolby off (dB) 
Standard tape. Dolby on (dB) 
CrO; tape, Dolby off (dB) 
CrOj tape, Dolby On (dB) 

MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS 

Wow-and-flutter (%, WHMS) 

Fast wind and rewind time, C-60 (seconds) 

COMPONENT MATCHING CHARACTERISTICS 

Microphone input sensitivity (mVj 
Line input sensitivity (mV) 
Line output level (mV) 
Phone output level (mV) 
Bias frequency (kHz) 

TRANSPORT MECHANISM EVALUATION 

Action of transport controls 
Absence of mechanical noise 
Tape head accessibility 
Construction and internal layout 
Evaluation of extra features, if any 

CONTROL EVALUATION 

Level Indicators) 
Level control action 
Adequacy of controls 
Evaluation of extra controls 

OVERALL TAPE DECK PERFORMANCE RATING 





Model: T-3 


ENTS AT 1% IPS 




R-E 


R-E 


Measurement! 


Evaluation 


10-19, 3.0 


Excellent 


10-23, 3.0 


Superb 


N/A See Fig 2 


N/A 


DK-S A/TDK- AD 




1.2/1.2 


Superb 


1.3/1.3 


Superb 


2.0/1.5 


Excellent 


+4.0/+5.5 


Excellent 


57 


Excellent 


65.5 


Excellent 


57 


Very good 


66 


Excellent 


0.045 


Superb 


45 


Superb 


0.16 




35.0 




1 .9 volts 




317/8 ohms 




N/A 






Superb 




Excellent 




Good 




Excellent 




Excellent 




Excellent 




Very good 




Excellent 




Excellent 



Superb 



TABLE 2 
CASSETTE TAPE DECK MEASUREMENTS AT 37. IPS. 



FREQUENCY RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS 

Frequency response, standard tape (Hz-kHz ± dB) 
Frequency response, CrOj tape (Hz-kHz ± dB) 
DISTORTION MEASUREMENTS (RECORD/PLAY) 
Harmonic Distortion at -3 VU (1 kHz) (%) 
Harmonic distortion at VU (1 kHz) (%) 
Harmonic distortion at +3 VU (1 kHz)(*/=) 
Record level for 3% THO (dB) 

SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO MEASUREMENTS 

Standard tape, Dolby off (dB) 
Standard tape, Dolby on (dB) 
Cr0 2 tape. Dolby off (dB) 
CrOa tape. Dolby on (dB) 

MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS 

Wow-and-flutter (%. WRMS) 

Fast wind and rewind time, C-60 (seconds) 



R-E 

Measurement* 

20-23. 3,0 

16-24, 3.0 See Fig. 3 

TDK-SA/TDK-AD 

0.8/1.0 

1.0/0 .8 

1.0/0.9 

+ 7.5/+ 11.0 



59 
67 
61 



0.025% 
45 



R-E 

Evaluation 

Superb 

Superb 

Excel ten I 
Superb 
Superb 
Superb 

Excellent 

Superb 
Superb 
Superb 

Superb 
Superb 



COMPONENT MATCHING CHARACTERISTICS 






Microphone input sensitivity (mV) 


See Table 1 




Line input sensitivity (mV) 


See Table 1 




Line output level (mV) 


See Table 1 




Phone output level (mV) 


See Table 1 




Bias frequency (kHz) 


See Table 1 




TRANSPORT MECHANISM EVALUATION 




- 


Action of transport controls 




Superb 


Absence of mechanical noise 




Excellent 


Tape head accessibility 




Good 


Construction and Internal layout 




Excellent 


Evaluation of extra features. If any 




Excellent 


CONTROL EVALUATION 






Level indicatorfs) 




Excellent 


Level control action 




Very good 


Adequacy of controls 




Excellent 


Evaluation of extra controls 




Excellent 


OVERALL TAPE DECK PERFORMANCE RATING 




Superb 

















































f 






I'll 










n ... 


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n 


5S 


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1— 




third-order or third-harmonic content (3 kHz, 
in that instance), while the lower section of the 
photo displays the random noise content repro- 
duced during playback. In the scope photo of 
Fig. 5, only the speed was changed, while the 
1-kHz recorded signal amplitude and all the 
gain and sweep settings remained the same. 
You will note that third-harmonic distortion is 
measurably lower and overall random noise 
level is considerably decreased throughout the 
bandwidth {to 20 kHz). 

Summary 

Recently, we had occasion to discuss the 
implications of metal-particle tape with one of 
the B.I.C./Avnet engineers. As you know, 
pure metal-particle tape promises to deliver 
greater headroom {or dynamic range) and 
improved frequency response especially when 
it is used in the cassette format. The B.I.C./ 
Avnet engineer pointed out that operating a 
cassette deck at twice the so-called standard 



RADIO-ELECTRONICS PRODUCT TEST REPORT 
TABLE 3 



Manufacturer: B.I.C./Avnet 



Model: T-3 



OVERALL PRODUCT ANALYSIS 



Retail price 
Price category 
Price/performance ratio 
Styling and appearance 
Sound quality 
Mechanical performance 



$529.95 

Medium 

Superb 

Excellent 

Superb 

Excel lent 



Comments: With respect to the operation of the modal T-3 at 3'A inches- per-second, it is not 
possible to compare this unusual stereo cassette deck with any other cassette deck 
available. As of this writing, there is nothing that operates both at the higher 3'A ips 
speed and standard cassette speed We expected that the higher-speed performance 
of this deck would be much better than the 1'/> ips performance of more expensive 
decks, knowing the limitations of slow speed tape recording. What we were not pre- 
pared for was the outstanding performance that this deck achieves even when operat- 
ing at the slower standard speed. 

The design engineers could have opted for extended frequency response at the 
expense of other operating parameters. Instead, they wisely elected to offer a machine 
In which all the Important operating characteristics (i.e., S/N, distortion and frequency 
response) are beautifully balanced and optimized with respect to each other. At the 
deck's higher speed, its performance truly equ als that of many open -reel machines. Of 
course, operating at twice the normal speed means that you use twice as much tape. In 
effect, a nominally labelled C-90 cassette effectively becomes a C-45. To the serious 
recordist who wants the finest possible recordings, this will pose no great problem. 
And If you want to be miserly about tape usage. Table 1 confirms that even at low 
speed the deck maintains a level of performance for which you would have to pay 
considerably more with other decks. 

Aside from the superior measurements shown In Tables 1 and 2, we should note that 
such recording aberrations as contour effect (the tendency for low-frequency 
response to waver up to around 150 or 200 Hz) have been all but eliminated (see Rgs. 
2 and 3). The model T-3's mechanical performance Is as Impressive as its electrical 
performance. Although not solenoid-operated, transport control is smooth and posi- 
tive, and tape handling is safe and reliable. B.I.C./Avnet should be congratulated for 
taking this bold step in the cassette-deck marketplace. 



speed produces exactly the same benefits with- 
out having to create new higher-bias circuits, 
new erase-electronics and heads, and new high- 
er-capacity recording heads. He further indi- 
cated that while operating cassette tape at 
twice the normal speed docs indeed use up 
twice as much tape, the pure metal- particle 
tape will cost considerably more than even the 
best grades of cassette tape presently available. 
He believes therefore that the company's two- 
speed cassette tape decks negate the actual 
need for a better tape such as metal-particle 
tapes. Of course, you can always argue that 
metal tapes, if used at higher speed in a com- 
patible cassette deck, would yield cvtn further 
overall improvement in performance. 



Our overall product evaluation is contained 
in Table 3 along with some summary com- 
ments regarding this unusual cassette deck. If 
we have tended to concentrate heavily on the 
Model T-3'i performance at its higher operat- 
ing speed, that is because we were impressed 
by the observable differences in performance 
compared with IVi ips operation. The B.I.C./ 
A vent Model T-3 stereo cassette deck is 
indeed a superb piece of equipment even when 
compared with ordinary cassette decks oper- 
ated at the slow I 'A ips speed. Even if you 
consider this equipment based only on the fig- 
ures in Table 1, the deck is superb at its price; 
add the results shown in Table 2 and it 
becomes a truly incredible machine. R-E 



Solid State News 



Video modulator IC's 

Motorola's MCI 372 and XC1373 TV 
video modulators arc designed for color 
TV applications in video games, data ter- 
minals, test equipment and videotape re- 
corders. The devices can be driven by the 
MC6847 video-display generator and 
other color and video sources. 

The MC1372 is a 14-pin device with a 
chroma subcarrier oscillator using an ex- 
ternal 3,58-MHz crystal, a suppressed- 
carrier double-sideband chroma modula- 
tor and an RF modulator. 

The lower-cost XC1373, mounted in 
an 8-pin mini-DIP, has an RF oscillator 
and dual-input modulator only. It can be 
used when a composite video source 
exists in another system. 

Both circuits produce signal outputs on 



Channel 3 or Channel 4 and can alterna- 
tively produce inverted or noninverted 
video output signals. For details, write to 
Motorola Semiconductor Products, Box 
209 i 2, Phoenix, AZ 85036, 

Second-generation VMOS device 

Siliconix's second-generation VMOS 
power FET, the VN84GA, is rated at 
1 2.5 amp and 80 volts which is a six-times 
current increase over previous transistors, 
With only microwatt input power, the 
VN84GA produces up to 80 watts output 
at low frequencies and a 50- watt output at 
30 MHz. The devices do not show any of 
the secondary- breakdown and thermal 
runaway characteristics of bipolar transis- 
tors. These FETs interface directly with 
CMOS, TTL, DTL, and MOS families 



for use in devices such as solid-state 
switching regulators, motor controllers, 
audio amplifiers and micro-processor in- 
terfaces. 

Using VMOS devices in linear amplifi- 
ers up to 30 MHz produces lower distor- 
tion because of the linear-transfer charac- 
teristics and good high-frequency behav- 
ior of the VN84GA, and the low distor- 
tion means that only small amounts of 
feedback arc required. The devices can 
also be used in Class- D audio amplifiers 
because of their fast switching and zero 
storage time. 

The VN84GA is mounted in a TO-3 
package and is priced at SI 9,76 in quanti- 
ties from 1 to 99. Silicon ix Incorporated, 
2201 Laurel wood Road, Santa Clara, CA 
95054. R-E 



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L. STEVEN CHEAIRS 

BY NOW, NO DOUBT. A NUMBER OFRADIO- 

Electronics' readers associate my name 
with video games. A fair portion of my 
articles thus far have dealt with that 
topic — and in the pursuit of the tradi- 
tion, here is another one. This construc- 
tion project will provide the reader with 
ten more black-and-white video games. 
Both NTSC and CCIR televisions sets 
may be used; NTSC is the standard 525- 
line U.S.A. system and CCIR is the 625- 
line system used in many foreign coun- 
tries. Both single-player and two-player 
games are possible. On-screen auto- 
matic scoring has been provided. 

Two potentiometers, one for each 
player, provide for vertical paddle 
motion. A control voltage, determined 
by the setting of the potentiometer, 
charges a capacitor; the charge-level 
of the capacitor is detected by a Schmitt 
trigger. Thus the rotation of the pot 
causes a variation in the voltage across 
the capacitor that is detected and trans- 
lated to a player-position on the tele- 
vision screen. The player and his score 
are color-coded for easy identification. 
The audio circuit outputs tones to indi- 
cate hits of the ball by the player, and 
impacts with the court border or target 
obstacles. Game selection is made by 
using a !0-key switch matrix; either 
Fixed — or momentary-contact — switches 
are acceptable. Two switches are used 
to start the ball into motion and to keep 
it in play during the game. A reset 
switch is provided to clear the screen 
to prepare for a new game. Three other 
switches select skill-level options. 

About the games 

Five single-player, and five duai- 
player games are contained on the 
LSI integrated circuit. Figure 1 shows 
a typical image for each game. There 
are three major types of game on that 
integrated circuit; those are Wipeotit, 
Color Squares, and Breakthrough. The 



One integrated circuit equals ten action-packed games. 
Build this videogame and get in on that action. 



LEFT SERVE 
POSITION LARGE END WALL 

BALL OPTIONAL 




WALL 



LARGE , 
BAT 





END WALL OPTIONAL " 

OPTIONAL BARRIER 
a 

FIG. 1— VIDEO DISPLAYS used by the Ten Action Games. The variations tor Wipeout and Co/or 
Squares are shown In a. Breakthrough 1 and 2 appear in b and c. 



first four games that will be described 
are the wipeout games. 

Figure 1-a illustrates the different 
characters that can be generated when 
playing the four versions of Wipeout 



and the four versions of Color squares. 
Wipeout 1 is chosen when select line 
one and strobe line one are connected, 
either momentarily or continuously, by 
switch S9. After game selection and 



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THE HEART of the Ten Action Games board Is the AY-3-8606-1 IC from General Instruments. Many of 
the components clustered around It are used to set the parameters of the games and display. 




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NOTE: C6 AND C7 MAY BE REDUCED IN VALUE IF K W 

NECESSARY TO MATCH XTAL REQUIflEMENTS 
VALUE OF fl16 MAY BE REDUCED IF VIDEO OUTPUT LOW 

SEE TABLE 1 FDR SWITCH S1-S16 FUNCTIONS 
SEE FIG. B FOB IC2PINOUT 

FIG. 2 — MAIN SCHEMATIC tor the Ten Action Games, A foil pattern is provided in Fig, 4. 



game reset, the game is started by 
pressing either the right or left serve 
button (S5 or S6). The object is to hit 
every black target-square. The squares 
disappear as they are hit. No deflection 
of trie ball results from hitting a target- 
square. The game will end if five con- 
secutive misses occur or if all squares 
are hit and obliterated. This is a single- 
player game — the right-hand paddle is 
used. That paddle is controlled by the 



pot connected nearest the LSI IC on 
the PC board. The score, paddle, ball, 
and boundary are gray. The score dis- 
plays the number of targets hit. 

Wipeout II is also a single-player 
game: it uses both the left and right 
paddles. After selection by S12 {select I 
with strobe 2} and reset (S4), the game 
begins when either serve switch is de- 
pressed. It will start with a white ball 
moving toward the right side of the 



screen. If intercepted by the black 
paddle, the ball changes color to black 
and rebounds toward the white side. 
The color-coded score records the tar- 
gets removed by its color ball. 

If select ! and strobe 3 are shorted 
together by switch S14, then Wipeout 
///is selected. It is a two- player game — 
both right and left potentiometers and 
SERVE buttons are used. The game is 
played much like the previous Wipeout 
game, but the playing area is totally en- 
closed. After the game is started it will 
continue until all target squares are re- 
moved. The first player to press his 
SERVE button after reset has control of 
the ball until his opponent can intercept 
it, thus gaining control of it for himself. 

The last Wipeout game, Wipeout IV, 
is chosen by S16's connecting the 
select I pin to the strobe 4 pin. It is also 
a two-player game. The game is played 
generally the same way as the others 
but with one major distinction — the 
screen is divided by a large vertical 
barrier. Thus the ball can only cross 
the field near the very top or bottom 
of the image and an added set of player 
strategies is gained. For example, once 
the ball is on a player's side, it may 
continually be bounced off the barrier 
to gain up to half the possible points. 
To win then, one need only pass the 
ball to the other side of the playing field. 
At least one more point will be scored 
in doing so, winning the game. 

Color Squares games follow similar 
lines to the Wipeout set with one major 
exception — the screen is divided into 
four sections. Two quadrants are color 
coded as the white player's and two are 
color coded as the black player's. Tar- 
get destruction may only occur by 
ramming one's own color square. The 
game ends when all targets of one color 
are removed. Color Squares I. selected 
by connecting select 2 to strobe I (S8), 
is a single-player game. Color Squares 



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GAME SELECT 

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SPEAKER 




FIG. 3 — CONNECTION of case-mounted components to main PC board. 



// is similar, but is a two-player version 
(it uses S 1 1 to connect select 2 and 
strobe 2). Color Squares HI (select 2 and 
strobe 3 — using SI 3) is played much like 
Wipeout IV. Select 2 and strobe 4 (S 15) 
tum on Color Squares IV. That is a 
single-player game, with only one paddle; 
the field is enclosed on three sides. 

The remaining two games are Break- 
through I and Breakthrough II. Break- 
through I (Fig. l-b) is a single-player 
game selected by switch S7. The ball is 
served toward the wall opposite the 
player's paddle. When it hits the wall a 
block is knocked out. The object of the 



game is to knock a hole through the 
wall and then to pass the ball through 
the hole. Each time the ball knocks a 
block from the wall it rebounds. The 
paddle is maneuvered to intercept the 
ball and redirect it into the wall. The 
wall is nine layers thick; only seven 
misses are permitted. The score, which 
should be kept as low as possible, 
records the number of blocks removed. 
Breakthrough II (Fig. I-c) is a two- 
player game with walls that are four 
layers thick. The game ends when a 
breakthrough occurs. Winning is a 
function of the number of hits. That 





TABLE I 




Switch 


Function 


Pin 


No. 




No's. 


S1 


High speed 


21. Gnd. 


S2 


Ball size 


20, Gnd. 


S3 


Bat size 


19. Gnd. 


S4 


Reset 


18, Gnd. 


S5 


Right serve 


17, Gnd. 


S6 


Left serve 


12, Gnd. 


S7 


Breakthrough I 


25, 26 


S8 


Color Squares I 


25, 27 


S9 


Wipeout I 


25. 28 


S10 


Breakthrough II 


24, 26 


S11 


Color Squares II 


24. 27 


S12 


Wipeout II 


24. 28 


S13 


Color Squares III 


23.27 


S14 


Wipeout III 


23, 26 


SI 5 


Color Squares IV 


22, 27 


S16 


Wipeout IV 


22, 28 

_ 



game is turned on by the select 3 pin 
and the strobe 2 line (S10). No game 
selection occurs when select 3 or 4 are 
shorted to strobe 3. 

Some features are common to all the 
games. The targets are arranged in a 
4x6 array. Each target is eight raster 
lines high and four dots wide. The score 
display is sixteen lines high and six 
dots wide. Each vertical line is two 
dots wide and each horizontal line is 
four raster-lines thick. The ball can be 
either of two sizes, five lines or nine 
lines high — switch S2— and the bat size 
and ball speed are selected by S3 and 
SI, respectively. The audio signals are 
the same for all the games. 

Construction 

This project is relatively simple for 
the beginner. But, even so, a minimum 
level of skill in construction is assumed. 
There are a number of sources (such as 
back issues of Radio-Electronics) 
where the beginner can find informa- 
tion on construction techniques. 



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CE FIG. 4 — PC BOARD foil pattern. Dots in comers indicate position of mounting holes. 
68 






PARTS 

All resistors Vs. watt, 5% unless other- 
wise specified 
Resistors 

R1 — 150 ohms 

R2— 12 megohms 

R3— 220 ohms 

R4, RS— 100.000 ohm pot. linear taper 

R6. R7. R13, R14, R18- 10.000 ohms 

RS— 1000 ohms 

R9— 270 ohms 

R10, R1 1—1200 ohms 

R 12— 3400 ohms 

R15— 1600 ohms 

R16— 1800 ohms 

R17— 470 ohms 

R 19— 2200 ohms 

R20— 10 ohms 

R21-R24— 100.000 ohms 

Capacitors 

C1— 250 tiF, 25 volt electrolytic 

C2, C3— 2.2 uf. 25 volt tantalum 

C4, C5— 0.33 ^F ceramic 

C6. C7— 30 pF ceramic 

C8-C13— 0.1 yF ceramic 

Semiconductors 

D1-D4— 1N4003 

D5 — 6.8-vott 2ener diode 

Q1— 2N3904 

Q3— 2N3906 



LIST 

IC1— 4001 CMOS quad. 2-input. nor 
gate 

IC2— AY-3-8606-1 (General Instru- 
ments) for U.S. -standard video 
(525-line) or AY-3-8606 for 625-line 
standard 

XTAL1— 3.579545-MHz crystal 

S1-S3— SPST toggle switch 

S4-S16— SPST normally-open (N.O.) 
pushbutton switch 

T1 — 12-volt. 1-amp transformer 

Miscellaneous: case. 8-ohm speaker, 
line cord, output jack, four spacers, 
wire, hardware 

The following may be obtained from 
Quest-Star Electronics Co., 5412 
Burnt wood Way, Las Vegas, NE 89108; 
Kit with all parts (no case or hard- 
ware), U.S. standard, G1300, S55.00 
or 625-line standard, G1301, $57.00. 
PC board only, $12.00. AY-3-8606 or 
AY-3-8606-1, $14.50. For orders of 
25 or more contact Quest-Star for 
prices. Please add $2.25 for shipping— 
any excess will be refunded. Nevada 
residents add 3Vi% tax. Shipment will 
be made from stock to six weeks. 



R4 •*- 





— »' 2N3906 

TO SPEAKER 0R 

2N38B4 







FIG. 5— PARTS PLACEMENT DIAGRAM. Take care to observe all polarities and make sure that jumpers 
are installed. Do not confuse the 2N3904 and 2 N 3906 transistors. 






KJ 








* AY-3-8606-1 






IE 


GND 


SELECT 1 


328 


213 


SYNC 


SELECT 2 


p27 


ZC 


BLANKING 


SELECT 3 


326 


4C 


COLOR BURST LOCATOR 


STROBE 1 


325 


SL 


BACKGROUND 


STROBE 2 


324 


6C 


BOUNDARIES 


STROBE 3 


J a 


7C 


LEFT VIDEO 


STROBE 4 


322 


ec 


RIGHT VIDEO 


HIGHSPEED 


3 21 


9C 


3,579545 MHz INPUT 


BALL SIZE 


3 20 


IOC 


TEST 


BAT SIZE 


319 


11C 


LEFT BAT VERTICAL 


RESET 


318 


12C 


LEFT SERVE 


RIGHT SERVE 


317 


13C 


SOUND 


+V 


316 


uc 


TEST RIGHT BAT VERTICAL 


315 



SUGGESTED LAYOUT for the PC board and external components within the case. The array of 
switches at the top Is connected to ■ row of pads located just above the game IC. 



FIG. 6— FUNCTIONAL P1NOUT of the AY-*B606-1 
IC. This can help you with the off-the-board 
wiring and, should It prove necessary, in 
troubleshooting. 



The bask tools one will need are a 
fine-tip, low-wattage soldering iron 
(about 2VAl watts), a pair of fine-tip 
pointed-nose pliers, a pair of diagonal- 
tip wire cutters, and a set of wire strip- 
pers. Also, include a spool of rosin- 
core solder. The game, may be assem- 
bled using point-to-point wiring, wire- 
wrap, or printed-circuit techniques. 
The printed-circuit approach will be 
considered here. The other two meth- 
ods can be undertaken using the parts 
list and the schematic diagrams shown 
in Figs. 2 and 3. Table I lists the func- 
tions of the front-panel mounted 
switches and their connections. 

If the printed-circuit approach is 
chosen then one can etch his own card 
using the artwork pattern presented in 
Fig. 4, or a board layout may be made 
by referencing the schematic diagram. 
The simplest course is to buy a ready- 
made circuit board from the source 
given in the parts list, Quest-Star Elec- 
tronics Co. 

The first step is to obtain all of the 
components shown in the parts list; 
most of those are common items. The 
main LSI game IC may be a bit dif- 
ficult to find, but it might be obtained 
from the same source as the PC board. 
Also, Quest-Star will provide a com- 
plete kit of all parts for those who do 
not have access to all of the components 
or who want to simplify their shopping, 
The complete kit includes all of the 
electronic components, the PC board, 
and the required hardware. 

Having collected all of the parts, 
place all of the electronic components 
on a workbench, desk, or table. Make 
sure that all of the MOS and CMOS 
integrated circuits remain in their con- 
ductive packaging. Compare the com- 
ponents, now laid out, to the items 
specified in the parts list and if every- 
thing matches then proceed. 

Take the enclosure and drill the holes 
required for the potentiometers, 
switches, transformer, PC board, 



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speaker, video-output jack, and line- 
cord. Next, paint the exterior of the 
case. After the paint is dry use dry- 
transfer lettering to label the controls. 
That should be followed by spraying 
the case with a clear lacquer to pro- 
tect the finish. Let the case dry for 
12-24 hours. 

Mount the corner spacers on the foil 
side of the printed-circuit board. Install 
the IC sockets in their proper loca- 
tions — making sure they are oriented 
properly; Fig. 5 should be consulted. 
Place a piece of cardboard on top of 
the sockets and invert the assembly, 
keeping an even pressure on both sides. 
Now solder the sockets into place. 
Return the assembly to the compo- 
nents-side up position. 

Install all of the resistors and capaci- 
tors; verify their locations and solder. 
Next install the diodes, transistors, and 
voltage regulator. Again verify the 
orientation and placement of the parts 
before soldering. Lay the PC card aside 
until final assembly. 

When the case is dry, mount the 
controls, transformer, line-card, out- 
put jack, speaker, and PC card. Wire 
those components as shown in Fig. 3. 
Before proceeding verify the wiring! 
Plug the line cord into an AC wall out- 
let. Check the voltages at the IC +V 
pins for the proper DC level — about 5 
volts. If they are correct, unplug the 
cord and discharge the capacitors. 
Install the IC's in their sockets- 
observing the proper orientation. The 
assembly is now complete; if an RF 
modulator is to be used it may be also 
installed in the case. 

Troubleshooting 

This section, I hope, will never be 
needed but if problems should be en- 
countered use the schematic diagram 
and the pinouts provided in Fig. 6 to 
aid in troubleshooting the game circuit. 
Start by following the checklist below: 

1. Are all components in the 
proper location? 

2. Are all components oriented 
correctly? 

3. Is the PC card wired correctly 
to the external components? 

4. Is the power-supply voltage 
correct? 

5. Is a 3.58-MHz clock signal 
present at pin 9 of the game 
IC? 

6. Is there an audio output? 

7. Is there a composite video 
signal? 

If the answer to any of these ques- 
tions is "no," then investigate that 
portion of the circuit. For example, if 
no clock signal is observed, check the 
oscillator. Troubleshooting in that 
fashion should enable you to locate and 
remedy any problems rather quickly. 

You should obtain a great deal of 
enjoyment from both the construction 
and use of this project. R-E 



wim 



TROUBLESHOOTING 

VHS 

TRANSPORT 

CIRCUITS 



FOREST BELT 



THE VHS VIDEOTAPE TRANSPORT MECHA- 

nism is a complex one, and so are the 
electronic circuits that control it. Let's 
take a look at how those control cir- 
cuits work. 

A prime key to the operation of the 
control circuitry lies among several 
switches. They open and close at what 
may seem irregular times during the 
tape-threading process. But the timing 
is quite specific, as you will see. 

Actually, only two switches (see 
Fig. I) work oddly. They operate as 
follows: While the machine is in the 
STOP mode — that is, before any button 
is depressed — the play-1 switch is 
open, and the play-2 switch is closed. 
When you first press down the play 
button, the play- 1 switch closes. The 
play-2 switch remains closed, for that 
initial movement of the play button. 
However, by the time the play button 
reaches the bottom of its travel and 
latches, the play-2 switch has opened. 

Later, pressing the stop button un- 
latches the PLAY button. As the play 
linkage leaves the latched-down play 
position, the linkage closes the play-2 
switch . . . and shortly thereafter opens 
the play-1 switch. 

The switches just described initiate 
the loading operation. To shut off the 
threading motor when loading has 
reached its limit, a loading-end switch 
closes and applies 12 volts to transis- 
tor Q6I2. The switch, having closed 
when loading is finished, remains closed 
until the motion of loading actually 
begins. 

Unloading is initiated whenever the 
play button unlatches, whether it is 
done manually or by the auto-shutoff 
solenoid. As you already know, this 



action of the PLAY-button linkage closes 
the play-2 switch and opens the play- 1 
switch. 

Then, when unloading is completed, 
the unload-end switch closes. That 
grounds the cathode side of diodes 
D617 and D618, which redirects vol- 
tages around so the motor quits run- 
ning. The unload-end switch stays 
closed until such time as the play but- 
ton again starts a loading operation. 

In one variation appearing in recent 
VHS models, the loading-end switch 
closes a path to ground instead of to a 
voltage supply. Of course, circuitry 
changes somewhat. For operation of 
the remainder of the section, how- 
ever, that modification changes prac- 
tically nothing. 

Tape loading 

To initiate tape loading, the operator 
depresses the play button on the front 
of the machine. Switch play-1 (see Fig. 
I) closes immediately. When the but- 
ton is first pushed, switch play-2 re- 
mains closed. 

A DC voltage goes through the play- 
I switch to a voltage divider (R633- 
R634) at the base of Q61 1. That turns 
Q6I I on. The voltage at the collector 
of Q61 1 goes low. In digital terms, lo- 
gic high at the base of Q6 1 1 produces a 
logic low at the collector — a classic 
inverter action. The low- voltage (logic) 
coupled to the base of Q610 through 
R632 places a logic high at the Q6I0 
collector and a logic low at its emitter. 
Both are output points from that stage. 

Low bias at the base of Q609 leaves 
Q609 cut off. A logic high could devel- 
op at the collector if there were some 
path for DC from a supply point. As 




Many videotape deck service 
problems involve the load/unload 
section. This companion piece to one which 
appeared several months ago on the Beta mechanism 
will round out your knowledge and abilities. 



you see, however, there is no supply 
resistor . . . only Q608. 

The P collector of Q610 is supplied 
with 12 volts unregulated through R623 
and R624. With no drop across R623, 
because Q610 is cut off, the base of 
Q607 stays high, same as the emitter. 
Lack of forward bias leaves this PNP 
transistor cut off. Q607 is, in effect, 
open. 



Meanwhile, the play-2 switch has 
remained closed. (This is still during 
the first instant of depressing the play 
button.) The unload-end switch, too, is 
closed, left that way when the tape last 
unloaded from the transport mecha- 
nism. These two switches create a path 
to ground for the positive voltage com- 
ing through R618. A ground at the 
cathode of D618 forward-biases D6I8 



and then D619. The voltage at the junc- 
tion of R618 and D619 stays near zero 
as long as both switches remain closed. 

Hence, Q605 receives no forward 
bias (logic low) and stays cut off. The 
resulting low voltage at the emitter of 
Q605 is seen as a logic low by the base 
of Q606. So that transistor, too, re- 
mains cut off, 

A DC supply path exists for the col- 




FIG. 1. SWITCHING DIODES AND TRANSISTORS turn threading motor orj and off, and apply voltages 
in reverse for unloading. Limit switches turn the threading motor off at the end of the loading and 
unloading sequence. 



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lector of Q605. It starts at the fusible 
resistor and the 12-volt unregulated 
line. Resistors R627 and R628 com- 
plete the path. But with Q605 cut off, 
no current flows through those resis- 
tors, and no voltage drop occurs. The 
voltage at the base of Q608 stays at the 
same level as the emitter, and Q608 
remains cut off, too. 

All that has taken place in the instant 
the PLAY button was first pressed down- 
ward, closing the play- 1 switch. Next, 
the PLAY button latches at the bottom 
of its travel. At that extreme, the play- 
button linkage opens the play-2 switch. 
Now things begin to happen. 

A bias voltage for Q605 now devel- 
ops across R620. Transistor Q605 turns 
on. Current flows in the R621-Q6Q5- 
R628-R627 path from the 12 volts un- 
regulated line. A positive voltage de- 
velops across R621, which turns on 
Q606. The normally-negative motor 
terminal goes to ground through a con- 
ducting Q606, 

Current through R627 develops a 
bias that leaves the base of Q608 less 
positive than the emitter. That bias 
turns Q608 transistor on, which applies 
12 volts DC to the normally-positive 
terminal of the loading motor. The 
motor begins turning, in its "forward" 
or normal direction. The mechanical 
loading process thus begins. 

The unload-end switch opens as 
soon as the loading-drive mechanism 
turns the loading rings. But that has no 
immediate effect on anything elec- 
tronic. The play-2 switch opened ear- 
lier, when the play button latched. 
And D6I7 is reverse-biased anyway, 
because Q6I1 is conducting heavily 
and keeping its collector voltage prac- 
tically at zero. 

End of loading 

The threading motor operates the 
tape-loading mechanism. Eventually, 
the loading-ring posts reach the limit of 
their travel, coming up against their 
V-stops. A protrusion on one ring push- 
es an arm that closes the end-of-loading 
leaf switch. 

If the switch is the kind that applies 
12 volts to R635 and R636. as is shown 
in Fig. 1, the bias turns on transistor 
Q612. A highly conductive Q6I2 acts 
as a short at the junction of D6I8 and 
D619. Diode D6 19 becomes highly con- 
ductive and the voltage at the junction 
of R6I8 and D619 goes to zero. 

The bias on Q605 ceases and Q605 
cuts off. Lack of current through R627 
w now lets Q608 cut off, removing DC 
^ voltage from the positive terminal of 
O the motor. Lack of current through 
t R62 1 cuts off Q606, which removes the 
w ground path from the negative terminal 
oj of the motor. Either change stops the 
O motor from turning. 
Q Note that Q61I stays on. This, 
£ through Q6I0. keeps Q609 and Q607 
72 cut off. 



The unload cycle 

To initiate unloading in VHS ma- 
chines, the operator need only press 
the stop button. That has no direct 
electronic effect. It merely unlatches 
the PLAY button and allows it to return 
to its up position. 

The play-1 switch opens and the 
play-2 switch closes. The play-2 switch 
has no effect, because the unload-end 
switch has remained open ever since 
loading began. 

The play-1 switch, upon opening, 
removes voltage from R6I8 and R633. 
The bias for Q6 1 1 disappears. Transis- 
tor Q611. which has been on all this, 
time, turns off and triggers a whole 
chain of electronic events. 

The voltage at the collector of Q61 1 
rises to the supply value. The positive 
voltage (logic high) goes through R632 
to the base of Q6I0, turning Q6I0 on. 
Current through R629 places a positive 
bias on Q609, and that transistor be- 
comes highly conductive. Transistor 
Q609 thus effectively grounds the nor- 
mally-positive terminal of the loading 
motor. 

Turning on Q6I0 brings its collector 
voltage low. Current flows in supply 
resistors R624 and R623. The voltage 
drop across R623 makes the base of 
Q607 less positive than the emitter. 
Transistor Q607 turns on, applying the 
positive 12 volts DC at its emitter to 
the normally-negative terminal of the 
motor. 

The loading motor, with voltages 
applied in opposite polarity to "nor- 
mal," begins turning backward. That 
starts the threading mechanism unload- 
ing the tape. 

As the loading rings rotate away from 
the "loaded" position, pressure is re- 
leased on the loading-end switch. It 
opens. But that has no immediate elec- 
tronic effect. When the play-1 switch 
opened, voltage was removed from 
R618. Diode D619 was from that mo- 
ment no longer forwarded-biased, so 
there was no longer a voltage path 
through Q6 12 anyway. The loading-end 
switch just rests open until another 
loading cycle calls it into use. 

Opening the play- 1 switch also re- 
moves the voltage from the R6I8-R6I9- 
R620 divider. With no positive bias, 
Q605 cannot conduct. Lack of current 
leaves no voltage across R621, and no 
bias for Q606. which stays cut off. By 
the same token, there's no current flow 
through R628 and R627; the base of 
Q608 stays as positive as the emitter 
and Q608 remains cut off or open. 

End of unloading 

Some other electronic effects have 
developed during the unload cycle. 
Transistor Q61 1 is off, and its collector 
voltage increases in the positive direc- 
tion. That places a positive voltage on 
the anode of D617. However, it does 



not constitute forward bias, because 
there is no ground return. So far, the 
unload-end switch is open. 

But when the threading mechanism 
reaches its limit, one loading ring moves 
an arm that closes the unload-end leaf 
switch. Now D6I7 can conduct. And 
it pulls the voltage at the collector of 
Q61 1 to zero. 

With bias gone, Q610 turns off, and 
so does Q609. That removes the ground 
from the positive motor terminal. Cur- 
rent stops flowing through R624 and 
R623, leaving Q607 without forward 
bias either. Transistor Q607 no longer 
applies a positive voltage to the other 
motor terminal. The motor stops. Tape 
has been unloaded. The unload-end 
switch remains closed until the next 
load cycle begins. 

Safety during threading 

Several conditions that trigger auto- 
matic-stop have the same effect if they 
occur during threading. Moisture on 
the dew detector or a stopped video- 
head wheel or capstan wilt prevent 
loading. The auto-stop mechanism un- 
latches the play button, letting it re- 
turn to its up position. That triggers the 
unload mode and unloading proceeds 
in the manner just described. 

Other safety factors are built into the 
electronic circuits of the threading/ 
unthreading section. A time-delay sen- 
sor, for example, halts loading efforts 
if anything impedes loading for more 
than 4 or 5 seconds. Two seconds 
should be sufficient for normal loading. 

You can follow the working of that 
mistoading protection arrangement by 
following Fig. 2, which contains addi- 
tional control circuitry not shown in 
Fig. I. 

When the play-1 switch closes, it 
applies voltage to R638, However, the 
still-closed piay-2 switch grounds out 
that voltage at the other end of R638, 
by holding D618 and D620 in conduc- 
tion. But when the play-2 switch opens 
(as the play button latches), the ground 
path through D620 and D618 then dis- 
appears. 

Diode D621 then conducts. So would 
D626, which activates auto-stop, were 
it not for capacitor C606. When voltage 
first reaches the D62 1 -D626-C606 junc- 
tion, it goes very low as the capacitor 
begins charging. Diode D626 therefore 
cannot conduct. 

It takes several seconds for C606 to 
charge up through R638 and R639. 
After that time, however, the voltage 
across C606-R639 increases enough 
to make D626 conduct. And that sends 
a logic high to the auto-stop system, 
activating it. 

The purpose is to stop the loading 
in case something jams the threading 
mechanism. When loading proceeds 
as it should, the loading-end switch 
closes well before C606 reaches any- 




FIG. 2. THE CHARGING TIME of CS06 through resistors R638 and R639 delays the voltage rise on 
DS26, to give threading time to complete before the auto-Stop mechanism is tripped. 



where near a full charge . . . before the 
voltage attains a level that could make 
D626 conduct. The loading-end switch 
turns on Q6I2, through the bias applied 
by R635 and R636. Conducting heavily, 
Q612 grounds out the voltage at the 
D620-D621 end of R638. Insufficient 
positive voltage reaches the anode of 
D626, thus averting auto-stop action. 

Power interruption, such as line- 
voltage failure or even turning off the 
main power switch of the machine, 
triggers the auto-stop system. That 
occurs through an effect which takes 
place in another portion of the trans- 
port control electronics. Figure 3 shows 
how. 

Transistor Q63 1 , which is part of the 
head-wheel-rotation detection system, 
draws its collector voltage from an 
unregulated 18-volt supply. Base bias, 
however, comes from the power-on 
line, that carries 12 volts from the main 
power supply. 

An output filter capacitor on the 18- 
volt line in the power supply (CI 11. 
4700 n F) stores a considerable charge. 
When the power is interrupted, base 
bias on Q63I disappears immediately, 
and Q631 cuts off. The collector vol- 
tage on Q631 increases accordingly. 
The 18-volt supply does not diminish 
so quickly, due to the large amount of 
energy stored in the power-supply 
capacitor. 

Diode D629, receives a high positive 



voltage on its anode and conducts. Re- 
sistor R644 carries a logic high to the 
auto-stop section. To assure quick 
auto-stop reaction, capacitor C607 and 
resistor R648 couple the abrupt rising 
pulse at the collector of Q63 1 to an ad- 
vanced stage in the auto-stop section. 
The auto-stop solenoid operates, 
making the play button pop up imme- 
diately upon interruption of power to 
the main supply. Then, when power is 
reapplied, the th reading-control sys- 
tem has been set for unloading. So 
unloading occurs, no matter how far 
threading had progressed when power 
went off. 

Troubleshooting load/unload faults 

As with other electromechanical 
operations in a VCR, you generally 







TO Q632 t 


ND 0633 R644 
• 0629 10K 


POWER 

ON H691 Q63I 

+12V 33K /Z? 


) ■ 

3.3K5 

i 

i 
+18V 


C6B7 R6« 

'xF 33 K 


7 


- CE17 
^ 0.33 


' +K ^" *" 

1 

J..CMI 

^•4J00fiF 
±. 
UNREG " 



FIG. 3. POWER-SUPPLY CAPACITOR C111 
provides power to Q631 long enough for D629 
to activate auto-stop after a power failure. 



fare best when you analyze mechanical 
functions before tackling the elec- 
tronics. Even though most operations 
are commanded by electronics, their 
faults often show themselves mainly 
in mechanical ways. Having observed 
movements (or non-movement), you 
can more readily assess what electronic 
stages are at fault. Evaluating some 
ordinary symptoms probably explains 
best how to diagnose wisely. 
Will not load. Make sure the play but- 
ton latches. If it doesn't, check its me- 
chanical latch. The stop solenoid could 
be tripping the play button; make sure 
the plunger or a linkage is not stuck. If 
the solenoid trips the play button elec- 
tronically, determine which transport 
safety sensor is activating automatic 
shutoff. That calls for electronic trac- 
ing; yet, the auto-stop action might be 
caused by a mechanical malfunction. 
There is no escaping the interrelated- 
ness of electronics and mechanics in a 
video cassette recorder. 

Observe the opening-closing se- 
quence of the leaf-type limit switches. 
Some have a protective cover that 
you must remove first. 

Inspect the Play switches, accessible 
if you open up the bottom circuit panels 
(see Figs. 4 and 5). If you doubt that 
any switch is making contact, use your 
voltmeter or ohmmeter to verify the 
switches continuity. 

If everything mechanical appears 
okay, but the machine wiil not load, 
start electronic diagnosis. You can 
begin at either end, but starting at the 
motor is generally quicker. A DC volt- 
meter is your most suitable tool. A 
logic probe can be used, provided you 
have learned to think in logic high /low 
terms. When components are discrete 
rather than IC, most technicians tend 
to feel more comfortable with regular 
voltage measurements. 

Latch the play button down. With 
ground as a reference, measure voltage 
first at the normally negative terminal 
of the motor. The Voltage there should 
be zero. If it is high, Qf306 may not be 
conducting. But do not overlook the 
possibility of a defective contact in the 
interchassis plug for the motor wiring. 

Pull the motor plug from its socket. 
Measure across the motor terminals 
with your ohmmeter. Around 20 ohms 
is normal. Another trick: Connect your 
voltmeter across the unplugged motor. 
Spin the flywheel by hand. A norma! 
DC motor generates a DC voltage 
when turned by an external force; the 
output voltage is positive when you 
spin the shaft in one direction, negative 
in the other. ££ 

Check bias on Q606, and verify that Zj 
Q605 works. If bias is missing from 5 
Q605 the play-2 switch may not have w 
opened. This microswitch is actuated 3 
with a bar pushed by the PLAY button £ 
linkage. If the switch stays closed, the g 

73 



ground path through D619, D6I8, and 
the unload-end switch keeps the vol- 
tage at the base of Q605 low. Anything 
that ultimately keeps Q606 from con- 
ducting can prevent the motor turning. 
Transistor Q606 acts as an open circuit 
instead of as a ground connection. 

Check the DC voltage at the nor- 
mally-positive motor terminal. As- 
suming Q605 conducts as it should, 
check the bias on Q6Q8, across R627. 

If you find that Q608 operates nor- 
mally, but the voltage at the plus side 
of the motor is low, check whether a 
leaky Q609 might be dragging the vol- 
tage down at the collector of Q608. Or, 
Q609 might be turned on. Trace back 
to find out why, because Q609 should 
be off during loading. Transistor O610 



should also be cut off. The appearance 
of bias at the base of Q610 could indi- 
cate that D617 or the unload-end switch 
is open. A defective Q6 1 1 would not 
leave the bias voltage on Q610 high, 
because a properly functioning D617 
and the unload-end switch (still closed, 
until loading motion actually begins) 
holds down the voltage coming tnrough 
R622. 

Another possible fault lies in the 
loading-end stage. Should Q6I2 short, 
the D618-D619-D620 junction stays 
at zero. Diode D619 prevents any vol- 
tage from reaching Q605, so Q606 and 
Q608 remains cut off. Loading there- 
fore cannot occur. (An open or non- 
operative Q6 1 2 leaves the loading mo- 
tor on. You may hear a squeaking as 




FIG. 4 — THE PLAY-1 MICROSWITCH closes when the play button Is depressed. 



O 

o 
rr 

H 
O 



o 

Q 
< 

rr 

74 




FIG. 5 — THE PLAY-2 MICROSWITCH, pushed by a mechanical slide link, opens when the play button 
latches. 



the motor pulley rubs the unmoving 
drive belt.) 

Will not unload. The stages involving 
Q605, Q606 and Q608 must be okay, 
since the tape loaded. However, an 
open Q609, Q6I0 or Q607 might disable 
the unloading sequence. 

Again, start at the motor with your 
voltmeter. A missing positive voltage 
at the normally-negative side of the 
motor indicates that Q607 is not con- 
ducting a positive voltage from its 
emitter to its collector. 

A positive voltage at the normally- 
positive terminal is wrong when the 
machine is trying to unload. That 
symptom suggests that Q609 is open or 
not conducting, A positive voltage at 
both terminals confirms that Q610 and 
Q607 are working and that the motor 
and plug show continuity. Transistor 
Q607 would stay off if Q6 1 were open 
or cut off. 

If there is no positive voltage at either 
side of the motor, you should suspect 
that Q610 is defective. However, a 
shorted Q6 1 1 or a stuck (closed) unload- 
end switch could prevent unloading, 
even though the loading has proceeded 
normally. 

Intermittents, Erratic loading or un- 
loading can give you fits. Once you dis- 
cover which function fails, the hints 
already given tell you in which stages 
the fault might be. 

Intermittents tend to fall into two 
categories. One is a cold- soldered con- 
nection between some part and the 
circuit board. An insulated poking- 
probe can help you find these. Or, if 
all else fails, take a hot soldering iron 
to each connection in the stages likely 
affected. 

The other most common intermit- 
tents turn out to be in the connecting 
plugs. The quickest cure, ordinarily, 
lies in just unplugging and replugging 
each connector tightly. But inspect the 
female side of the plug, A damaged 
wiper can spoil the connection at one 
pin; that is not uncommon if someone 
else has been "into" the machine be- 
fore you. For your own part, be ex- 
ceedingly careful when plugging a con- 
nector back into the pins of the circuit 
board. One bent wiper and you're the 
culprit. That damage can be hard to 
trace, and the cure just might be a new 
plug. 

Loads, then unloads. This symptom 
corresponds with automatic shutoff. 
The play button pops up and the ma- 
chine unloads. If the tape fails to un- 
thread, you have an unloading problem, 
too. 

Should anything interfere with com- 
pletion of the loading motion, the load- 
ing-end switch does not turn on Q6I2. 
After the time-delay interval, shutoff 
takes over automatically. Hunt for 
that trouble in the loading sequence, 
or in any of the sensor stages- R-E 



An in-depth look at 
the only^plug-in^remote control system 

^ver need for your home. 



FUNCTIONS: 
ON AND OFF 



FUNCTIONS: 

ON, OFF, BRIGHTEN 

AND DIM 




16 UNIT CODE 
KEYS 



You're in control 
by remote control. 

Simply plug in The Controller" 
and the BSR System X-10 7 modules, 
and control lights and appliances 
anywhere in the house by pressing a 
few buttons. So it's easy to take control. 

There's no end to all 

of the control you've got. 

You can turn on the TV, radio or 
stereo in the morning to help you wake 
up without getting up from bed. Or at 
night, turn on the lights before going 
downstairs so you don't have to fumble 
in the dark. Turn off unnecessary lights 
and help get your electric bill under 
control. Or, dim the lights and save 
energy, too. 

And when it's time to turn in, just 
push a button and turn everything off. 
And sleep soundly. But, if you hear a 
strange noise in the middle of the night, 
you can press a button to turn on all the 
lights and scare the daylights out of an 
intruder. 

The Controller is designed to 
control every room in the 
house. 

By pressing the buttons on the 
Command Console keyboard, 
command signals are transmitted over 



the modules. And you're ready to 
take control. 



existing household wiring to 
module of your choice. The Lamp 
Module turns on, off or dims any 
incandescent lamp up to 300 watts. 
The Appliance Module turns 
appliances like TVs, window fans or 
stereos on and off. And the Wall Switch 
Module is designed to turn on, off or 
dim any light or lamp up to 500 watts 
normally operated by a wall switch. 

There's even a Cordless Controller 
that transmits signals to an Ultrasonic 
Command Console from up to 30 feet 
away. So there's plenty of control for 
everyone. 

Simplicity is built into 
the system. 

No special wiring is 
needed. Simply plug The 
Controller Command 
Console into any wall outlet 
in any room of the house. 
Then plug your lamps and appliances 
into the appropriate modules. Plug in 



BSR X-10 SUPER SPECIAL 

DELUXE 
ULTRASONIC CONSOLE 

REGULARLY $49.95 

NOW $29.95 

With the purchase of three or more 

module* 

Modules normally $17.00 ea. 

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Normally $24.95 Now $18.95 

Please add $3.00 for shipping 

TOLL FREE HOT LINE 

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THE TIMER™ Automatically Program* 
Lights, Appliances. Just plug in The Timar 
and the BSR X-10 modules and you can pro- 
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and Off up to twice a day. UL listed. 
$74.95 il purchased separately. II purchased 
with 3 or more modules $59.95 



NEW 



ADVA 
ELECTRONIC 

4 West 45 Street, New York, N.Y.10036 212-687-2224 





(0 

o 

z 
o 

cc 

I- 
O 



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TROUBLE TONE ALERT 

I DESIGNED THIS SYSTEM FIVE YEARS AGO 

for use in my service business, and it 
works great. I use it to look for intermit- 
tent problems on my bench. For example, 
if 1 had a color TV whose horizontal out- 
put current would go way up at unpre- 
dictable times, and 1 didn't want to sit by 
and wait for this to happen, I'd hook up 
the tone alert and let it tell me when the 
current increase took place. 

The Trouble Tone Alert is intended for 
use with analog meters — -just wire a 
"mini" earphone jack directly across the 
meter movement, piug it in, and you're all 
set. The high impedance of the alert 
keeps it from affecting the accuracy of 
the meter reading, because most meter 



movements are on the order oflSOOohms 
and the input impedance of the alert is in 
the megohm range. 

This device is as versatile as your 
meter, since all it reacts to is the meter- 
movement driving voltage. It will respond 
to a change in AC or DC voltage, current, 
or in resistance. 

You tell the Trouble Tone Alert 
whether to look for an increase or de- 
crease by means of the DPDT switch and 
adjust the threshold control until the tone 
from the Sonalert just disappears (with 
the meter in the circuit being tested, of 
course). After that you can go about your 
business and wait for the alert to signal 
you when your intermittent problem has 
finally shown up. 

John J. Augustine 



ANHLOGt 



d 



Af£T£R 




METER. 
MOVEMENT 



■0+I2V 




cppr 

5 Wl TcH 
( I MCR EASE I 



DPST ■SWITCH 



FIG. 1 




NEW IDEAS 

This column is devoted to new ideas, 
circuits, device applications, construc- 
tion techniques, helpful hints, etc. 

All published entries, upon publica- 
tion, will earn $25 plus a Circuit Board 
Holder, Standard Base and Tray Base 
Mount from Panavise Products, Inc. 
(See photo below.) Selections will be 
made at the sole discretion of the edito- 
rial staff of Radio-Electronics. 




I agree to the above terms, and grant 
Radio-Electronics Magazine the right 
to publish my idea and to subsequently 
republish my idea in collections or com- 
pilations of reprints of similar articles. I 
declare that the attached idea Is my 
own original material and that its publi- 
cation does not violate any other copy- 
right. I also declare that this material 
had not been previously published. 



Title of Idea 



Signature 



Print Name 



Date 



Street 



City 



State 



ZIP 



Mall your idea along with this coupon 

to: 

New Ideas 
Radio-Electronics 
200 Park Ave. South 
New York, NY 10003 



76 



/" ADVANCE IS PROUD TO INTRODUCE N 

The $h HITACHI Line of High Quality Oscilloscopes 

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(Also available in single-trace) 



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Sweep-time magnifier effective for precise 
measurement; sweep time magnifying 10 times 
with one-touch operation. 

Trace rotation system for easily adjusting 
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Z-axis input provided-possible to use as CRT 
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Five modes of vertical deflection operation 
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?\ 



m 



THE TEST EQUIPMENT SPECIALISTS 
TOLL FREE HOT LINE - M « u#«e 

800-223-0474 ADVANCE— f", 

ELECTRONICS^- 



54 WEST 45th STREET. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10036 212-667-2224 j 



m 
m 

<: 

CD 

m 

30 

_L 

to 

a> 

o 

77 



Hobby corner 



One-arm bandit circuit plus a new packaging system for your 

projects. EARL "DOC" SAVAGE, K4SDS, HOBBY EDITOR 



HENRY COOPER OF STERLING HEIGHTS, 

Michigan, has come up with an inter- 
esting circuit for a one-armed bandit. 
There are a number of such circuits 
around but his is much simpler than 
most. 

Figure 1 is a "cherries/lemons/or- 
anges" circuit based on the one Henry 
sent in. When I built his, I managed to 
eliminate a few more components. The 
present count seems to be about the mini- 
mum number of pieces that will do the 
job. 



each case, the D, E and F segments are 
on, so he wires them to stay on and 
doesn't have to worry about controlling 
them. That leaves only A, B and C seg- 
ments to control — actually, only two 
since B and C must go on and off togeth- 
er. The G segment (the center horizontal 
one) is not used in any of those three 
displays. 

The B and C segments are driven 
directly by the 749 O's. Driving the A seg- 
ment directly would have it on when it 
should be off and vice-versa. That is the 



want the players to be able to see the 
readout before releasing S 1 ! 

A little experience with the bandit may 
cause you to want to change the odds. 
That can be done by changing the 7490 
output pins used to drive the segments 
and/or the next 7490. Output pins are 12 
(1), 9 (2), 8 (4), and 11 (8). Experiment 
with various combinations. You don't 
have to drive the A segment and the next 
7490 from the same pin, either. 



+3VDC o- 

IN 



1805 



-O +5VDC 
OUT 



CO 
Q 

Z 

o 
or. 
I- 
o 

UJ 

_i 

UJ 

o 

< 



78 




FIG. 1 



The readouts are 7-segment common- 
cathode LED's. Since the circuit wiring is 
somewhat unorthodox, the LED's are 
shown in an "exploded" view to prevent 
confusion. 

The 555 serves as a standard astable 
(free-running) multivibrator that we have 
discussed before. It drives 7490 count- 
ers — one for each "window" LED. That 
is where the present circuit departs from 
the usual. 

Henry's LED's read "C" for cherry, 
"L" for lemon and "O" for orange. In 



purpose of the inverter (one-sixth of a 
7404) — to reverse the on/off action of 
the A segment. 

When building the bandit, you may 
wish to examine the readout action more 
closely. As given, you won't be able to see 
what is happening while SI is pressed 
because the 555 is running at a rate of 
about 500 kHz. 

Increasing the value of Rl and/or CI 
will slow it down. Don't forget to put it 
back to high speed when it is operating to 
your satisfaction. After all, you don't 



FIG. 2 

This little bandit works very well. 
Build it in a small case such as the Unibox 
mentioned below and it will provide many 
hours of entertainment. To get it into the 
smallest possible box and have the great- 
est convenience, use a small wall-plug- 
type AC adapter. If you build in the 5- 
volt regulator shown in Fig. 2, you can 
use a common 9-volt adapter. Of course, 
you could also use a 9-volt battery but it 
won't last long because of the heavy cur- 
rent drain of the readouts. 

Thanks, Henry, for sharing your cir- 
cuit with us. 

Packaging your project 

As soon as you think you have found an 
ultimate product — one which cannot be 
improved — someone comes along and 
does just that! This time it is small cases/ 
cabinets for electronics projects. Amerex 
(P. O. Box 2815, Riverside, CA 92516) is 
the outfit that has made the improvement 
with their Unibox (Figs. 3 and 4). 

One would expect the choice of colors 
and sizes (in this case up to 2 X 4 X 5 'A 
inches) in those tough plastic enclosures. 
Several other Unibox features, however, 
are not expected. 

First, there are epoxy-glass gridboards 
that mount vertically and/or horizontally 
inside. Those gridboards are perforated in 
the standard 0.1 -inch hole pattern for 
easy mounting and wiring of IC's, sockets 
and other components. 

Next, there are red or gray windows 
for use with LED and other readouts. 
Then, there are opaque panels that can be 
used for connectors, switches and so on. 
The final touch is provided by non-mar- 
continued on page 82 



The sharpest picture ever achieved 
in big-screen projection TV 

The new Heathkit Screen Star sets a new 
standard in picture quality for big-screen 
projection TV. The finest FLO lenses you 
can buy produce one of the clearest, 
brightest pictures ever. 
Imagine watching all your favorite TV 
movies and sports events on a big 6-foot 
diagonal screen. Heathkit's three-tube 
projection gives you brighter, more vivid 
color. And it's a lot easier to build than 
conventional TV's. 

A complete computer system in one 
compact unit 

The Heathkit All -In -One Computer takes 
the guesswork out of selecting a bal- 
anced computer system. It includes 
built-in floppy storage, smart terminal, 
heavy-duty keyboard, 12-key numeric 
pad, Z80 CPU, and 16K RAM expandable 
to 48K — all in one compact unit. ^^^ 

Two Z80 microprocessors mean ter- 
minal and computer never share 
power. So both can operate faster 
on more complex programs. And 
there's no better way to leam 
about computers than to build 
one yourself. 



to 



/j 




The only computerized home 
weather station for instant, up-to- 
the-minute weather reports 

Just push a button for reliable weather 
information anytime you need it with 
the unique Heathkit Weather Station. 
It gives you digital readouts of 
F or C temperatures, wind speed in 
miles or kilometers per hour or in 
knots, wind direction, barometric 
pressure, date and time of day, even 
the wind chill factor. 
This microprocessor -based weather 
computer has memory to store data 
and precision infra-red sensing 
devices built into the outdoor trans- 
mitter. And it's very easy to build. 

The finest stereo receiver ever 

introduced by one of the 

leaders in audio technology 

It's loaded with luxury features that 
let you adjust your music to your 
preference. 
Special features include a Precision 
Tuning System (PTS) that automati- 
cally corrects mistuning. 5-section FM 
tuning capacitor gives you maximum 
rejection of unwanted signals for lower 
noise, cleaner sound. Digital frequency 
readout, center tune meter, and flywheel 
loaded tuning are just a few of the lux- 
ury touches. Complete 
specifications are in the 
latest Heathkit Catalog. 



FREE CATALOG 



See all the newest innovations in build-it- 
yourseli kits in the latest free Heathkit Catalog. 
It contains nearly 400 exciting kits for your home, 
worJt or pleasure. Send today. 



Heathkit 



If coupon is missing, write Heath Co., 

Dept. 020-692, 

Benton Harbor, MI 49022 

Heathkit Products are also sold and serviced at Heathkit Electronic 
Centers {units oi Veritechnology Electronics Corporation) in major 
cities throughout the U.S. See your white pages. 



Send to: Heath Company, Dept. 020-692, 
Benton Harbor, MI 49022 

Yes, please send me a Heathkit Catalog, 
I am not currently receiving your catalogs. 



Address - 



City_ 



CL-72SA 



. State, 
Zip— 



CIRCLE 62 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



CO 

m 



DO 

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x 

<5 

CO 

a 
81 



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o 

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fact: 

five new Shure Cartridges 

feature the technological 

breakthroughs of the 

VlS^pelV 



Plus 

Unprecedented 
stylus protection 




the M97 Era IV Series phono cartridges 

Shure has written a new chapter in the history of affordable hi-fi by making the 
space-age technological breakthroughs of the incomparable V1 5 Type IV available 
in a complete lineoi high-performance, moderately-priced cartridges: the M97 Era 
IV Series Phono Cartridges, available with five different interchangeable stylus 
configurations to fit every system and every budget. 

The critically acclaimed V15 Type IV is the cart ridge that astonished audiophiles 
with such vanguard features as the Dynamic Stabilizer — which sjmultaneously 
overcomes record-warp caused problems, provides electrostatic neutralization of 
the record surface, and effectively removesdust and lint from the record — and, the 
uni que telescoped stylus assembly which results i n lower effective stylus mass and 
dramatically improved trackability 

Each of these features . . .and more. . .has been incorporated in the five car- 
tridges in the M97 Series — there is even an M97 cartridge that offers the low 
distortion Hyperellipticat stylus! What's more, every M97 cartridge features a 
unique lateral deflection assembly, called the SIDE-GUARD, which responds 
to side thrusts on the stylus by withdrawing the entire stylus shank and tip safely 
into the stylus housing before it can bend. 

NEW! M97 Series Era IV Phono Cartridges. . . Five new Invitations to the new 
era In hi-fi. 



Model 



Stylus 
Configuration 



Tip 

Tracking 

Force 



Applications 



M97HE 



Nude 

Hyperelliptical 



V4tOlVi 

grams 



M97ED 



NudeBiradial 
(Elliptical) 



%U01V2 

grams 



Highest fidelity 
where light 
tracking forces 
are essential. 



M97GD Nude Spherical 



%to1V4 
grams 



M97EJ 



Biradial 
(Elliptical) 



1teto3 
grams 



M97B 



Spherical 



1'/2tQ3 

grams 



Where slightly 
heavier tracking 
forces are 
required. 



78 rpm Stylus 
forallM97's 



Biradial 
(Elliptical) 



1V2to3 
grams 



For 78 rpm 
records. 



\\ 



Shure Brothers Inc.. 222Hartrey Ave.. Evanston, IL 60204 

In Canada: A. C. Simmonds & Sons Limited 

Outside the U.S. or Canada write to 

Shure Brothers Inc., Attn: Dept. J6 for information on your local Shure distributor 

Manufacturers of high fidelity components, microphones, sound systems and related circuitry. 

CIRCLE 60 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



HOBBY CORNER 

continued from page 78 



ring feet which can be added. 

Altogether, the Amcrex Unibox is the 
neatest and most convenient packaging 




FIG. 3 




FIG. 4 

system I have found for small projects. 
Prices are quite reasonable, also. If you 
can't find Uniboxes locally, write to 
Amerex. 

The cell connection 

Zvi Rozensher of Briarwood, NY has 
inquired about methods of connecting 
parallel alkaline cells. As you know, if one 
is weaker than the others, they will dis- 
charge through that weaker one. 



m 



FIG. 5 

Of course, the usual way to prevent the 
discharging is to use diodes as in Fig. 5. 
However, there is a voltage drop across 
the diodes. Zvi would like to know if any 
readers have found another way to con- 
nect the cells and avoid that voltage loss. 

Circuit handbook 

If you do any building at all, you reach 
a point from time to time when you need 
a little circuit for some special use. I have 
accumulated a fair library to search 
through, when that happens to me. Late- 
ly, however, there is one book which I 
turn to first. 

Usually, 1 find what t need in the new 
Archer Engineer's Notebook (Radio 
Shack #276-5001 at $1.99). The 128 
pages of that Notebook contain much 
helpful information and literally hun- 
dreds of circuits. 

Included are circuits that stand alone, 
and others that are building blocks for 
larger projects. A wide variety of TTL, 
CMOS, and linear ICs are used. One 
glance through the Notebook will con- 
vince you that it would be a very useful 
addition to your own library. R-E 



More information on new products is available. Use the 
Free information Card inside the back cover. 



CHART RECORDER, the IR-5207, is an X-Y 
recorder kit in the test-instrument line. The kit 
features front-panel input filters with pushbutton 
controls, an integral paper- hoi down that can be 
used in horizontal or vertical modes, and "zero" 
controls that allow the pen to be placed anywhere 
on the chart with zero Input at both coordinates. 




CIRCLE 50 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

Calibrated 1, 10, 100 mV- and 1 volt-per-inch 
ranges are selectable from the front panel. Other 
features are electric pen lift, calibrated X and Y 
sweep, and remote capability. The IR-5207 uses 
B'/i by 11 inch paper and two kinds of disposable 
pens are available. Price is $479.94. — Heath Co., 
Dept. 350-260, Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 

FUNCTION /SWEEP GENERATOR, model LFG- 
1300S, provides a wide range of capabilities and 
is suitable for use in design, testing, and service 
applications. Housed in an all-metal enclosure, 
the unit covers frequencies of 0.002 to 2 MHz in 8 
ranges and includes linear and logarithmic sweep 
modes with sweep widths up to 1000:1 and sweep 
rates of 0.5 to 50 Hz. Waveform outputs include 




CIRCLE 151 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

sine, triangle, sawtooth, and pulses. Output level 
Is continuously variable from to 20 V P-P and a 
push-button attenuator provides up to 70 dB 
attenuation In 1Q-dB steps. An auxiliary connec- 
tor provides TTL level signals for driving logical 
circuits, price is $495. — Leader Instruments 
Corp., 380 Oser Ave., Hauppauge, NY 11787. 

THERMOELECTRIC COOLER, model 801-1029- 
01-00-00, is designed for use with 8. 14, 16, and 
1B-lead dual in-line packages [DIP'S}. When 
placed between the DIP and a heat sink, it can 
pump out up to 3.5 watts of heat using a modest 
input of DC power, thereby allowing a DIP to 
operate In a hot environment. The unit can heat 




CIRCLE 152 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

as well as cool, so the device can also be used to 
regulate DIP temperatures to any preset value in 
the range of ambient ±60° Celsius. Price Is 
$4.90. — Cambridge Thermionic Corp., 445 Con- 
cord Ave., Cambridge, MA 02238, 

BURN-IN SOCKETS, TS-5173, are a line of TO- 
pattern sockets offered in both standard (150°C 
with BeCu contacts) and high temperature ver- 
sions (200 *C with BeNi contacts). The series is 
available with from 3-to-12 gold-plated contacts 
and features very low insertion force and a center 




CIRCLE 153 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



locating stud for greater mounting rigidity. Price 
is $.63 each for 1000 pieces.— Robinson-Nugent, 
Inc., 800 E. 8th St., New Albany, IN 47150, 

CABLE TV ADAPTOR, model 047AE. allows sub- 
scribers to tune all cable channels using their TV 
set's remote control. The system allows reception 
of cable channels through the set's UHF tuner, 
which can be operated remotely, thus freeing the 
viewer from having to get up and go to the cable 




CIRCLE 154 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

converter box everytime he wants to switch to 
another program. Channels 2 through 13 remain 
available through the VHF tuner. The system 
includes the converter, AC adaptor, 75-to-300 
ohm transformer and instructions. Price is $39.95 
plus shipping (NY residents add appropriate 
tax). — ETCO Electronics Corp., North Country 
Shopping Center, Rte 9 N„ Plaits burgh, NY 
12901. R-E 




( ) I'm sold, send the Limiter kit, 
$49.94 plus postage enclosed. 

( ) Send the assembled limiter S79.95 
plus postage enclosed. 

[ . } Send Free Catalog 

Charge Visa MC_Card No. 



Name; 



Address: 



City. 



. State:. 



.Zip: 



ELECTRONICS. Dcpt. Ml .IH20W Wilsklrl. NMmiCHi. 0X13116 
CIRCLE 26 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



TEST UP TO 

100 WATTS/STEREO 

200 WATTS/MONO 




AUDIO POWER CONTROL 
TPC-100 $140 

Now test an amplifier or receiver's maximum 
power, crosstalk, distortion, and much more. 
The TPC-lQO's monitor output provides the in- 
terconnection between the amplifier and your 
test equipment. The TPC-100 distributes 2 chan- 
nel audio signals Into 4. 8, or 16 ohm dummy 
loads (which are MIL grade non-inductive), or to 
the external speakers. 

"6 order, or for more information, contact; 



6910 HAVENHURST AVENUE/ VAN NUYS/CAUR)RNtA 91(06 
213 786-6890 



CIRCLE 65 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



05 

m 
-u 
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£ 
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.J 

19R0 



EQUIPMENT REPORTS 

continued from page 44 



tablet is included, enabling the user to take 
hundreds of readings and record them for a 
variety of individuals. 

The instrument is powered by a standard 
9-voIt transistor radio battery. Because of the 
additional power consumption required by 
both LED and audible indicators, use of an 
alkaline battery is recommended. 

Testing the BP-1 

Unpackaging the Micronta BP-1 blood- 
pressure tester, we found that it included a 
handy vinyl carrying case, complete with con- 
toured cutouts to support the instrument, a 
hinged lid, and velcro clasps. 

A short review of the manual was most 
informative. Several paragraphs are devoted to 
an introduction to hypertension, its causes and 
statistics, and interpretation of blood pressure 
readings. 

A step-by-stcp procedure is outlined to 
familiarize the user with the unit. After read- 
ing the instructions and taking a few practice 
readings, using the instrument is a snap. 

Two flexible rubber cables from the pres- 
sure cuff arc inserted into the instrument. The 
cuff is placed over the upper arm, white dot 
located over the brachial artery. That location 
may be found visually by the presence of a 
superficial dark vein just to the inside of the 
elbow joint, palm turned up. Or, it may be 
detected by feeling for a pulse. 

With the pressure cuff in proper position, 
the Velcro wrap is snugly pressed down, hold- 
ing the cuff in place, A series of squeezes on 
the bulb inflates the cuff to a pressure of about 
200 millimeters. The instrument is then 
switched on, and the release button is slightly 
depressed, allowing the air pressure to drop 
slowly until the indicators begin to signal. 

We found the cuff to be very lenient about 
slightly improper placement. Virtually identi- 
cal readings were obtained with the white dot 
off center by an inch or more. But for a correct 
reading, the arm must be elevated to the same 
height as the heart (mid-chest height). Too 
low, and the instrument will show an unrealis- 
tic high reading; too high, and the instrument 
will show an inaccurate low reading. The dif- 
ference will be a significant amount. 

How accurate? 

To test the accuracy of the BP-1, we took 
our review sample to a local hospital and 
checked it against three resident instruments. 
We found slight differences in measurement 
among all instruments, but the BP-1 was well 
within the range of variability. A farther test 
against a newer instrument Is a dentist's office 
showed identical readings. 

While the retail cost of the BP-l is higher 
than most consumer-grade stethoscope sphyg- 
momanometers, it appears to be of quality 
manufacture; ours was certainly equivalent lo 
the two-piece professional units with which il 
was compared. The Unencumbered one-handed 
application is a distinct advantage. We find ihe 
BP-l to be both cleverly designed and realisti- 
cally priced. The BP-l blood pressure tester 
sells for $69,95 and is available at Radio Shack 
stores nationwide. R-E 



"ftf 



Write: National Committee for 
Prevention of Child Abuse, 
Box 2866, Chicago, III. 60690 



Start Computing For Just $129,95 With An 

8085-Based Professional Computer Kit— 

Explorer/85 

100% compatible with alt 8080A and 
8085 software & development toots! 

No matter what your future computing plans may 
be, Level "A' 1 — at $129+95 — is your starting point. 

Startlnt at just $129,95 far a Level "A" operating system, 
you can now build the exact computer you want, Explorer f 85 
can be your beginner's system, OEM controller, or IBM- 
formatted 8" disk small business system, . .yet you're never 
forced to spend a penny for a component or feature you don 7 
want and you can expand ttt small, affordable steps* 

Now, for just $129.95, you can own the first level of a fuEly 
expandable computer with professional capabilities— a com- 
puter which features the advanced Intel 8085 cpu h thereby 
giving you immediate access to ait software and development 
totifs that exist for both the $085 and lis S08QA predecessor 
fthey are 100% software compatible)— a computer which 
readme j onboard S-100 bus expansion— plus instant conver- 
sion to mass storage disk memory with either 5-1/4" diskettes 
or standard IBM-formatted 8" disks, 

For just $129.95 [plus the cost of a power supply, keyboard/ 
terminal and RF modulator, if you don't have. them already), 
Explorer/85 lets you begin computing on a significant level. . - 
applying the principles discussed in leading computer maga- 
zines. - .developing "state of the art" computer solutions for 
both the industrial and leisure environment. 

Level "A" Specifications 

Explorer/Si's Level "A hh system features the advanced Intel 
SOBS cpu f an 3355 ROM with 2k deluxe monitor /operating 
system, and an 8155 ROM -I/O— all on a single motherboard 
with room for RAM/ROM/PROM/EPROM and S-100 ex- 
pansion, plus generous prototyping space. 

{Level "A" makes a perfect OEM controller for industrial 
Applications and Is available In a special Hex Version which 
can he programmed using 
the rVelronlcs Hex Keypad/ 
Display.) 
JT * PC Board? glass epoxy, plated 

3 through holes with solder mask 

■ I/Ot provisions for 25-pin 
(DB25) connector for terminal 
serial I/O, which can also sup- 
port a paper tape reader 
. . . provision for 24-pin DIP 
socket for hex keyboard/dis- 
play, . .cassette tape recorder in- 
put. ,, cassette tape recorder output. . .cassette tape control 
output., speaker output,. . LED output indicator on SOD 
(serial output) line, . , printer interface (less drivers). . .total of 
four 8-bit plus one 6-bit I/O ports -Crystal frequency: ft. 144 
MHz • Con I to I Switches : reset and user ( RST 7 . 5) 
interrupt. . .additional provisions for RST 5,5, 6,5 and TRAP 
interrupts onboard * Counter Timer: programmable, 14-bit 
binary • System RAM: 256 bytes located at FS00, ideal for 
smaller systems and for use as an isolated stack area in 
expanded systems. . .RAM expandable to 64k via S-100 bus or 
4K on motherboard. 

System Monitor (Terminal Version}: 2k bytes of deluxe 
system monitor ROM located at KflW leaving 0000 free for user 
RAM/ROM. Features include tape load with labeling . . .tape 
dump with labeling. . .examine/change contents of memory 
...insert data... warm start. . .examine and change all 
registers. . .single step with register display at each break point, 
a debugging/training feature... go to execution address.,, 
move blocks of memory from one location to another... fill 
blocks of memory with a constant. . .display blocks of memory 
. . .automatic baud rate selection. . .variable display line length 
control (1-255 characters/line). . .channelized I/O monitor 
routine with 8-bil parallel output for high speed printer... 
serial console in and console out channel so that monitor can 
communicate with I/O ports. 

System Monitor (Hex Version): Tape load with labeling. , . 
tape dump with labeling, , .examine/change contents of mem- 
ory. ..insert data., warm start . . examine and change all 

I" Ketronics R&D Ltd., Dept. RE-9 
333 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776 
plus 52 p&h. 



By Natron tc* 




Level "A " at $129.93 is a 
complete operating system, 
perfect for beginners, hob- 
biests, or industrial con- 
trailer use. 






registers . . .single step with register display at each break point 
. .go to execution address. Level "A" in the Hex Version 
makes a perfect controller for industrial applications and can 
be programmed using the Netronics Hex Keypad/Display. 

^j. — Hex Keypad/Display 
£^t Specifications 

Calculator type keypad with 24 
system defined and 16 user 
defined keys. 6 digit calculator 
type display which displays full 
address plus data as well as 
Hex Keypad/Display register and status information. 

Level "B" Specifications 

Level" B" provides the S-100 signals plus buffers/drivers to 
support up to six S-100 bus boards and includes: address 
decoding for onboard 4k RAM expansion select-able in 
4k blocks, . .address decoding for onboard Ek EPROM expan- 
sion selectable in 8k blocks. . .address and data bus drivers for 
onboard expansion. . .wait state generator (jumper selectable], 
to allow the use of slower memories. . .two separate 5 volt 
regulators. 

Level "C" Specifications 

Level "C" expands Explorer's 
motherboard with a card cage, 
allowing you to plug up to six 
S-100 cards directly into the 
motherboard. Both cage and 
Explorer/85 with Level cards are neatly contained inside 
"C" card cage. Explorer's deluxe steel cabinet. 

Level "C M includes a sheet metal superstructure, a 5-card gold 
plated S-100 extension PC board which plugs into the mother- 
board. Just add required number of S-100 connectors 
Level "D" Specifications 

Level H, D" provides 4k or RAM, power supply regulation, 
filtering decoupling components and sockets to expand your 
Explorer/35 memory to 4k (plus the original 256 bytes located 
in the8l55A). The static RAM can be located anywhere from 
WW to EFFF in 4k blocks. 
Level "E" Specifications 

Level H 'E" adds sockets for 8k of EPROM to use the popular 
Intel 2716 or theTI 2516. It includes all sockets* power supply 
regulator* heat sink* filtering and decoupling components. 
Sockets may also be used for soon to be available RAM IC's 
(allowing for up to 12k of onboard RAM). 

Order A Coordinated 
Explorer/85 Applications Pak! 

Experimenter's Pak (SAVE 512.50)- Buy Level "A" and Hex 
Keypad/Display for $199,90 and gel FREE Intel 8QS5 user's 
manual plus FREE postage & handling! 
Student Pak (SAVE $24.45)— Buy Level "A." ASCII Key- 
board/Computer Terminal, and Power Supply for S3 19.85 and 
get FREE RF Modulator plus FREE Intel 8085 user's manual 
plus FREE postage St, handling! 

Engineering Pak (SAVE S4LIKU— Buy Levels "A." M B," 
"C." H4 D t " and "E" with Power Supply^ ASCII Keyboard/ 
Computer Terminal, and six S-100 Bus Connectors for 5514,75 
and get 10 FREE computer grade cassette tapes plus FREE 
8035 user's manual plus FREE postage & handling! 
Business Pak (SAVE SS9.95)-Buy Explorer/85 Levels ll A," 
' H B," and "C M {with cabinet), Power Supply, ASCII Key- 
board/Computer Terminal (with cabinet), 16k RAM, 12" 
Video Monitor, North Star 5-1/4" Disk Drive (includes North 
Star BASIC) with power supply and cabinet, all for just 
51599,40 and g« 10 FREE 5-1/4" minidiskettes (£49.95 value) 
plus FREE 8085 user's manual plus FREE postage & handling! 



Please send the items checked below— 
D Explorer/85 Level "A" Kit (ASCII 
Version), 5129.95 plus 53 p&h. 

□ Explorer/85 Level "A" Kit (Hex 
Version), £129.95 plus %i p£h. 

fj 8k Microsoft BASIC on cassette 
tape. 564,95 postpaid, 

□ 8k Microsoft BASIC En ROM Kit 
(requires Levels "B," "D," and "JE' H ), 
599.95 plus S2 p&h, 

□ Level 4, B*' (S-100) KH, 549,95 plus 
$2p&h, 

□ Level "C" tS-lOQ 6-eard expander) 
Kit. 539.95 plus 52 p&h. 

□ Level "D" {4k RAM) Kit. 569.95 
p!usS2p&h. 

□ Level "£" (EPROM/ROM) KH. 
55.95 plus 50CpAh. 

□ Deluxe Steel Cablnel for Explorer/ 
85. 549.95 plus S3 p&h. 

D ASCII Keyboard/Computer Ter- 
minal Kit (features a full 128 character 
Ki. upper & lower case, full cursor con- 
trol, 75 ohm video output convertible 
to baudot output, selectable baud rate. 
RS232-C or 20 ma, I/O. 32 or 64 char- 
acter by 16 line formats, and can be 
used with either a CRT monitor or a TV 
set (if you have an RF modulator), 
$149.95 plus 52.50 p&h 



D Deluxe Steel Cabinet for ASCII 
Keyboard/Terminal, 519,95 pius 52-50 
pAh. 

D Power Supply KJl ( ± 8V <$ 5 amps) 
in deluxe steel cabinet, 539.95 plus 52 
P&h. 

O Gold Plated S-100 Bus Connectors. 
54.85 each, postpaid. 
G RF Modulator Kit (allows you to 
use your TV set as a monitor). 5>S,95 
postpaid. 

D 1 6k RA M K it (S 100 Board expands 
to 64k). 5199.95 plus $2 p&h 
G 32k RAM Kit. 5329.95 plus %2 p&h. 
O 48K RAM Kit. 5459,95 plus S2pAh, 
G 64kRAMKItrf£89.95plus$2p&h. 
G 16kRAM Expansion Klt(tocxpand 
any of the above up to 64k), 5139,95 
plus $2p£h each, 

G Intel 8045 cpu U«r H s Manual. $7.50 
postpaid. 

G Special Computer Grade Cassette 
"['■pes, 51.90 each or 3 for 55, postpaid. 
G 12" Video Monitor (10 MHz band- 
width), $139.95 plus$5p&h. 
G North Star Double Density Floppy 
Disk Kit (One Drive) for Explorer/ 
35 (includes 3 drive 5-100 controller, 



U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 

CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

To Order From Cc-nneclicut Or For Technical 

Assistance, Elc Call (203| 354-9375 ™ ^ 
serialized disk operating system — justv 
plug it in and you're up and running!).! 
5699.95 plus S5 p&h. 

□ Power Supply Kit Tor North Starl 
Disk Drive, 539.95 plus 12 p&h. 

□ Deluxe Case tor North Star Disxl 
Drive. S39.9S plus S2p&h. 
G Experimenter 1 ! Pak (sec 
$199.90 postpaid. 
D Student Pak (see above), 
postpaid. 

C Engineering Pak (see 
S5W.7S postpaid. 

O Business Pak (see above), $1599.-40 1 
postpaid. 

Total Enclosed $ I 



above), I 
$319.*s| 
above},! 



(Conn. res. add sales tax) By— 

D Personal Check D M .O ./Cashier's I 

Check D Visa DMaiter Charge ■ 



(Bank»_ 



Signature _ 
Print 
Name 



_Eip. Date . 



City_ 



| D Hex Keypad. Display Kit. S69.9S DOS. and extended BASIC with per- State 



-Zip__ 



G Send Me .[.formation 



By Natron lea 

ASCII/BAUDOT, 
STAND ALONE 




95 



Computer $1Q 
Terminal 1W 



Tne Neuronics ASC I J / BAU DOT Com puter Ter ntinal Kit is a 
microprocessor-con i rolled, stand a Lone keyboard/ term i n al 
requring no computer memory or software. It allows the use of 
cither a 64, or 12 character by 16 line professional display for- 
mat with selectable baud rate. RS232-C or 20 ma. output, full 
cursor control and 75 ohm composite video output. 

The keyboard follows the standard typewriter configuration 
and generates the entire 128 character ASCII upper/lower case 
set with 96 printable characters. Features include onboard 
regulators, selectable parity, shift Lock key, alpha lock jumper, 
a drive capability of one TTY load, and the ability to male 
directly with almost any computer, including the new Ex- 
plorer/85 and ELF products by Netronics. 

The Computer Terminal requires no I/O mapping and 
includes Ik of memory, character generator, 2 key rollover, 
processor controlled cursor control, parallel ASCII/BAUDOT 
to serial conversion and serial to video processing— fully 
crystal controlled for superb accuracy. PC boards arc the 
highest quality glass epoxy for the ultimate in reliability and 
long life. 

VIDEO DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS 

The heart of the Netronics Computer Terminal is the rmcro- 
proeessor-con trolled Netronics Video Display Board (V1D) 
which allows the terminal to utilize either a parallel ASCII or 
BAUDOT signal source. The V)D converts the parallel data to 
serial data which is then formatted to either R5232-C or 20 ma. 
current loop output, which can be connected to the serial I/O 
on your computer or other interface* i.e., Modem. 

When connected to a computer, the computer must echo the 
character received. This data is received by the V|E> which 
processes the information, converting to data to video suitable 
to be displayed on a TV set fusing an RF modulator) or on a 
video monitor. The VlD generates the cursor, horizontal and 
vertical sync pulses and performs the housekeeping relative to 
which character and where it is to be displayed on the screen. 
Video Output: IS P/P into 75 ohm (ElA RS-170} ■ Baud Rate: 
1 10 and 300 ASCII' Outputs: RS232-Cor20ma. current loop 
* ASCII Character Set: l2o printable characters— 



!■«&'()*+,-. /M23456789.j<=>? 
mCDEFtMMJtnKICTUU^ 

s abcdef9hijklftflomstuvvx<jz{!>HI 



BAl DOT Character Set: A BCD E FG H IJ K L MS' O PQ 
RSTUVWXYZ-?;*3S#{). ,9014 157; 2/68* 
Cursor Modes: Home, Backspace, Horizontal Tab, Line Feed, 
Vertical Tab, Carriage Return. Two special cursor sequences 
are provided for absolute and relative X- Y cursor addressing * 
Cursor Control; Erase, End of Line, Erase of Screen. Form 
Feed, Delete • Monitor Ope rat ton; 50 or 60Hz (jumper 
selectable. 

Comment!! U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Conntclrcul 

CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

^ To Order From Connecticut Or For Technical ^ _ 
Assistance, Etc Call (203) 354-9375 

I Netronics R&D Lid., Orjrt. RE-9 
333 I itdififlil Road, New MUCord, CT 06776 
I Pleast send the items checked below— 

U Netronics Stand Alone ASCII Keyboard /Computer 
Terminal Kit. S149.9S plus 13.00 postage & handling. 
l>eluxe Stefl C-abinel for Netronics Keyboard/Termi- 
ng] In Blue/Black Finish, $19,95 plus 52,50 postage 
and handling. 

Video Display Board Kit alone (IcM keyboard), M9.9S 
plus S3 postage & handling. 

II" Video Monitor (10 MHz bandwidth) fully assem- 
bled and tested, S139.95 plus $5 postage and handling. 
R3-' Modulator Kit (to use your TV set for a monitor), 
SI ,95 postpaid. 

S amp Power Supply Kit In Deluxe Steel Cabinet 
(±8VDC ® 5 amps, plus M VAC), S39.9S plus SI 
poslagc & handling. 

Total Enclosed (Conn, res, add sales tax) S 

By- 

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FIG. 1 



Transceivers with ail the operating controls built into 
the microphone herb friedman, communications editor 



STARTING WAY BACK IN THE DARK AGES 

of CB when all transceivers used vacuum 
tubes, many attempts have been made 
to place channel selection and ot he i fre- 
quently used functions, such as volume 
and squelch control, in the microphone. 
(Among other benefits it allows a vehi- 
cle's driver to change channels without 
leaning across the seat, and/or taking 
his eyes off the road.) 

Some early "remote control" designs 
had RF running all over the place, and 
they made the "Rube Goldberg" con- 
traptions we used to see in the Sunday 
comics look like advanced engineering 
by comparison. 

Successful full-feature remote control 
from the microphone didn't come about 
until Large-Scale Integration — or LSI 
as it is more commonly termed— was 
used for phase-locked oscillators and 
their control circuits. 




FIG. 2 

The phase- locked oscillator generates 
both the receiver's local oscillator fre- 
quencies and the frequencies from 
which the transmitter's output fre- 
quencies are derived. Not very long ago 



that was a formidable design with a cost 
and complexity that limited its use 
almost exclusively to radio astronomers. 
But by substituting solid-state devices 
for vacuum lubes, and then using LSI 
as a substitute for hundreds of discrete 
components, almost overnight the 
phase-locked detector became an IC no 
larger than your index finger. It was 
priced well under SiO in manufacturing 
quantities. {Actually pennies in today's 
marketplace.) 

Today, we have Large Scale Integra^ 
tion of Large Scale Integration. That's 
about the ony way to describe shrinking 
a device the size of your index finger to 
something slightly smaller than half the 
length of your little finger. 

Everything has become so small it's 
now possible to build virtually all trans- 
ceiver controls, including channel 
selection, into the microphone itself, 
just as Cobra has done in their model 
66GTL remote (Hideaway) 40-Channel 
continued on page 92 



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ON ANL OFF ON CH3 OFF RFGAIN 
FIG. 3 



All new! 

All construction projects! 



Here's the new quarterly mag- 
azine you've been waiting for 
— Radio-Electronics Special 
Projects — page after page of 
ail new, never-before pub- 
lished construction articles on 
Test Equipment, Computers, 
Electronic Music, Communi- 
cations, Automotive and 
Hobby Projects. 

They're the kind of projects 
you want to build, the kind 
only Radio-Electronics has 
the expertise to design, and 
the first issue is filled with 
brand-new construction arti- 
cles like these: 



Test Equipment 
Digital Scope Multi- 
plexer — to convert 
almost any scope into 
a 4-trace unit. 
Frequency Multi- 
plier — to extend the 
range of your fre- 
quency counter. 
Safety Cooker — that 
protects unattended 
equipment against 
electrical problems. 
Battery Box/ 
Switching Box — 
a great accessory for 
any bench. 
Car Test Probe — 
use it to test auto 





4-Channel Scops Multiplexer 
Chord Egg Synthesizer 
Car TesI Probe 



Bar-Graph Voltmeter 



Digital Logic Trainer 
TRS-80 I/O Controller 
Programmable Sound Generator 







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1 01 tun 



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i J 



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motive electrical 

systems. 

Digital IC Tester— 

to make quick work of 

testing digital IC's. 

Electronic Music 
The Chord Egg — to 

generate an endless 
series of chords auto- 
matically. 

Words And Music — 
a programmable 
music generator that's 
ideal for doorbells. 
Big Sound For 
Chord Organs— to 
enhance the sound 



from electromechani- 
cal chord organs. 

Computers 
Digital Logic 
Trainer— that 

teaches how micro- 
processors work. 
Save Your Files — 

cassette tape recorder 
controller makes 
using tape as comput- 
er memory storage 
easy. 

P rog ra m mabl e 
Sound Generator — 
adds sound capability 
to almost any comput- 
er system. 



Hobby 

Adventures of the 
IC's — applications 
forLM3914andVMOS 

power FETs. 
Digital Do-Nothing 
Box — lights, counts, 
teaches binary and 
digital number sys- 
tems. 

Communications 
Digital Readout 
Add-on For 
Communications 
Receivers — to update 
older receivers easily. 
Microphone Acous- 
tic Coupler — a sim- 



ple add-on for any 

communications 

system. 

And lots more — all 

new, and all on your 

newsstands 

September 4! 

Or... 

Use the handy 
coupon and get your 
advance copy of 
Rad I o- Elec tronics 
Special Projects (mail- 
ed after August 11) 
delivered fight to your 
door. Make sure you 
get your copy by 
ordering... today! 



We will ship yo'ir magazine, postpaid In 
U.S. and Canada, within 6 weeks of re- 
ceipt of your order. Ail other countries add S3 
for postage. 



Electronics ■ ■ 

special 



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THEOffi 
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edited by 
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ELECTRONICS DESIGNERS' HAND- 
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Gardner, 2nd Ed.. 285 pp.. illus. Thts edition of 
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INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY AND 
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BIT-SLICE MICROPROCESSOR 
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MICROELECTRONICS 
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ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION. By 

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Hold everything! 

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standard base 
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6-compartment 
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COMMUNICATIONS CORNER 

contiiiiti'et frtiui pai>e 86 

CB mobile radio. And it is done at very 
little extra cost to the consumer be- 
cause of LSI. 

Figure I shows the complete Cobra 
package consisting of the hideaway 
main unit, that can be concealed easily 
under the dashboard or under the seat, 
and the plug-in microphone that eon- 
tains a combination speaker/microphone 
and all operating controls. They include 
the channel selector, volume, and 
squelch controls. ANL on-off switch. 
RF gain-control switch, instant ehannel- 
9 selector switch, and push-to-talk 
switch. A two-digit LED indicator is 
the channel display. 

The inside of the mike is shown in 
Fig. 2. Here we see how the magic is 
accomplished. The speaker, removed 
from the case so you can see all of the 
interior, also serves as the microphone. 
In addition to the miniature controls 
and switches along both edges of the 
microphone, there is a single LSI IC in 
the center. That IC is the key to full re- 
mote control operation. 

The IC serves as both the driver for 
the LED channel indicator and the con- 
trol for the phase-locked oscillator that 
is located in the main unit — no RF flows 
back and forth between the microphone 
and the main unit. Each time the chan- 
nel selector is pushed, up or down to 
step the channel selector one channel at 
a time, the IC changes the LED display 
one channel (up or down). It also sends 
a coded DC signal to the phase-locked 
oscillator, that generates the operating 
frequencies corresponding to the indi- 
cated channel selection. The instant 
channel-9 switch, overrides the normal 
channel selection and forces the IC to 
transmit the proper DC control signals 
needed by the oscillator for channel-9 
operation. Simultaneously, the IC 
changes the LED display to indicate a 
■'9." 

The microphone schematic is shown 
in Fig. 3. IC pins numbered 7 through 
12 provide the control signal to the 
oscillator in the main unit. Just about 
everything else is self-explanatory. 
Simple? Yes? Low cost? Again, yes. 
Was this possible four or five years 
ago? Not with only two IC's in a 
moderately priced package it wasn't. 
The technology existed; but without 
LSI and the cost reduction inherent in 
the multi-million dollar CB marketplace 
you'd probably still be reading about 
'"Future applications of the phase- 
locked oscillator." rather than holding 
it in the palm of your hand. 

Temperature compensation in a fre- 
quency counter 

TCXO means Temperature-Compen- 



CIRCLE 58 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



sated Crystal Oscillator. To anyone 
even remotely involved with communi- 
cations equipment it conjures up a vision 
of a crystal wrapped in a thermostati- 
cally controlled heating element to 
maintain the crystal temperature within 
very narrow limits to reduce, or elimi- 
nate, frequency drift. Virtually all 
broadcast and non-CB commercial 
communications transmitters (and some 
receivers) have a TCXO somewhere in 
the frequency generating or control 
chain. Most certainly, every lab-grade 
frequency counter and/or meter has a 
TCXO. and even an F.C.C. -approved 
frequency counter (for transmitter fre- 
quency tests) has a TCXO. 

Now there's a hand-held 8-digit 50 to 
500-MHz frequency counter that sells 
for only $169.95 complete with a re- 
chargeable battery pack and charger. It 
even has a telescopic antenna that can 
sense signals from hand-held walkie- 
talkies. Featuring 0.4-inch LED read- 
outs, the unit, the model 500HH from 
DSI Instruments, also features a l-PPM 
TCXO. 

Since the unit is battery-powered, a 
logical question is: "How is the TCXO 
heater powered?" Actually, there's no 
heater. Nothing in TCXO means that 
there is a heater: it's simply been as- 
sumed that there was, because TCXO's 
always used a heater for temperature 
stabilization. 

What DSI has done is to design their 
oscillator so it is within l-FFM over a 
relatively narrow temperature range of 
17° to 40°C. or62.6 to 104 8 F. Just great 
for indoor use: but no I PPM is guar- 
anteed when working on a vehicle or 
boat out in the cold, or in the hot sun. 
In a sense, the 500HH is temperature- 
compensated for indoor use, but calling 
it TCXO is an unfortunate choice of 
words for a device that doesn't have a 
heated crystal. Unfortunate, because 
the 500HH is an excellent device, well 
worth the money: yet many techs are 
obviously going to question the use of 
"TCXO" to describe an oscillator with 
an unheated crystal. 

The 500HH has two BNC inputs: one 
for the direct 50-MHz counter: the 
other through a x 10 prescaler that pro- 
vides a 500- MHz input. A switch selects 
either input. A second switch provides 
power off in the center position and a 
time base of 0. 1 sec for MHz. and I sec 
for kHz. The switch automatically cor- 
rects the decimal point. To conserve 
the battery, because LED's eat up a lot 
of current, all leading zeroes are sup- 
pressed. 

In actual field tests — indoors of 
course — the DSI model 500 HH was 
within 10 Hz of an F.C.C. -approved 
frequency counter's reading at approxi- 
mately 100 MHz. That's about as good 
an accuracy as you'll ever need for in- 
door frequency measurements when 
troubleshooting equipment. 




FIG. 4 

The unit measures approximately 
3-1/2" wide x 5-7/8" long x 1-3/16" thick; 
a nice size for a toolbox. The BNC con- 
nectors and switches are along the top 
edge. The charger/ AC power connector 
is on the rear, as is an access hole to the 



crystal's trimmer capacitor. You can 
take a look at the inside of the counter 
in Fig. 4. 

Overall it's a very convenient and in- 
expensive frequency meter for the tech 
or hobbyist on a tight budget. It's 
simply unfortunate that the temperature 
range isn't clearly spelled out in °F. a 
more common reference than °C (at 
least in this country), and all mention of 
a non-heated TCXO should be elimi- 
nated; the instrument is simply too 
good for that kind of weasel-wording. 
Additional information on the model 
500HH is available from DSI Instru- 
ments. Inc.. 7924 Ronson Rd., San 
Die go. C A 921 II. R-E 



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A LIFETIME GUARANTEE AND 11 OTHER REASONS TO BUY 
''TOELECTRONICS" FREQUENCY COUNTER 



1 . SENSITIVITY; Superb amplifier cirtu, 
that can't be matched at twice the price, Average sensitivity 

of better than 15 rnV from 10 Hz to 500 MHz on every model 
and better than 30 mV from 500 MHz to 1.1 GHz on the Series 
80 IDA and 8013. 

2. RESOLUTION: 0.1 Hzto12MHz,1 Hz to 50 MHz, 10 Hz 
over 50 MHz. 

3. ALL METAL CASES: Not only are the heavy gauge aluminum 
cases rugged and attractive, they provide the RF shielding 
and minimize RFl so necessary in many user environments.- 

4. EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT/OUTPUT: Standard on the 8O1O/ 
8013 series and optional on the 7010 series isa bulfered 

10 MHz clock time base input/output port on the rear panel. 
Numerous uses include phase comparison of counter time 
base with WWVBfU.S. National Bureau of Standards}. Stand- 
ardize calibration ol all counters at a facility with a common 
10 MHz external clock signal, calibrate scopes and other test 
equipment with the output Irom precision time base in 
counter, etc, etc. 

5. ACCURACY: A choice of precision to ultra precision time 
base oscillators. Our ±1 PPM TCXO (temperature compen- 
sated xtat oscillator) and ±0.1 PPM TCXO are sealed units 
tested over 20-40*C. They contain voltage regulation circuitry 
tor immunity to power variations in main instrument power 
supply, a 10 turn (50 PPM) calibration adjustment lor easy, 
accurate setability and a heavily bulfered output prevents 
circuit loads from affecting oscillator. Available in the 8010 and 
8013 series is our new ultra precision micro power proportional 
oven oscillator. With ±.05 PPM typical stability over 10-45°C, 
this new time base incorporates all of the advantages of our 
TCXO's and virtually none of the disadvantages of the tradi- 
tional ovenized oscillator: Requires less than 4 minutes 
warm-up time, small physical size and has a peak current 
drain of less than 100 ma. 

6. RAPID DISPLAY UPDATE: Internal housekeeping 
functions require only .2 seconds between any 
gate or sample time 

MODEL 7010A 600 MHz 



.' n n n n n n 



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any model listed). 

7. PORTABILITY: All models are delivered with 3 1 15 VAG 

adapter, a 12 VDC cord with plug and may be equipped with 

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its case. The optional Ni-Cad pack may be recharged with 12 

VDC or the AC adapter provided. 

B. COMPACT SIZES: State-of-the-Art circuitry and external AC 

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Instruments. 

Series 8010/8013: 3" H x 7-1/2" W x 6-1/2" D 

Series 7010: 1-3/4" H x 4-1/4" W x 5-1/4" D 

9. MADE IN U.S.A.: All models are designed and manufactured 
at our modern 13,000 square foot facility at Ft. Lauderdale, 
Florida. 

10. CERTIFIED CALIBRATION: All models meet FCC specs 
for frequency measurement and provided with each model is a 
certilicate of NBS traceable calibration. 

11. LIFE TIME GUARANTEE: Using the latest State-of-the-Art 
LSI circuitry, parts count is kept lo a minimum and internal 
case temperature is only a few degrees above ambienl 
resulting in long component life and reliable operation. (No 
custom IC's are used.) To demonstrate our confidence in these 
designs, all parts (excluding batteries) and service labor 
are 100% guaranteed (or life to the original purchaser. 
(Transportation expense not covered). 

12. PRICE: Whether you choose a series 7010600 MHz 
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at twice its price for comparable quality and performance. 

• MODEL 8010A/8013 1.1 GHz/1 .3 GHz 



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CIRCLE 4 ON FREE INFORMATION CJ 



Typical problems with tripler circuits and some not so 
typical. jack darr, service editor 



o 

z 
o 

DC 
I- 

S 



O 
Q 

96 



A GREAT MANY SOLID-STATE TV SETS USE 

voltage multipliers to develop the high 
voltage Tor the picture lube. We call those 
triplcrs, although some of them are actu- 
ally quad ru piers. In any case, from now 
on we'll call the device a "tripler" to save 
space. The symptoms and reactions are 
the same with both. The units are all 
encapsulated and, as a rule, quite expen- 
sive; so we need tests that will identify 
troubles that are in the tripler. As with 
everything else in this business, including 
picture tubes, we can find symptoms that 
apparently point to the trouble only to 
find after replacing the suspect compo- 
nent that the symptoms are still there. 
That can be definitely non-habit-forming 
because it's time- wasting and expensive. 

The main symptom of a bad tripler is 
very low or no high voltage at all; some 
may short internally. For either case, the 
best test I know of is to unhook the input 
lead from flyback to tripler, and recheck. 
If all of the other voltages derived from 
the flyback are normal (the boost and low 
DC voltages for example) and there's no 
sign of overload, that is pretty conclusive. 
Not definite yet, though! 

There are often other things that can 
cause those symptoms. One is the bleeder 
resistor used in many sets to develop the 
focus voltage. That will be tied directly 
across the high-voltage output of the 
tripler. If the bleeder should be internally 
shorted or arcing, that will load down the 
high-voltage supply and fake a bad tripl- 
er. To test the bleeder resistor, first dis- 
connect it and then recheck for high volt- 



age. In one odd case recently, in the Clin- 
ic mail, the symptoms were a "frying 
sound" with hash on the screen and inter- 
ference in nearby AM radios. That 
turned out to be internal arcing in the 
focus bleeder. 

The high voltage shutdown circuit may 
be fed from a tap on the Tocus- voltage- 
dropping network; below the main large 
resistor. However, if there is a problem 
here, the flyback will not develop the 
boost and other DC voltages. 

Another circuit that causes symptoms 
often blamed on triplers is the ABL (Au- 
tomatic Brightness Limiter). That is 
sometimes fed from a special tap on the 
tripler. Key clue here — if the high volt- 
age is up to normal, then the ABL is cut- 
ting the raster off. 

Figure 1 shows a typical circuit using a 
dual sense-voltage for the high-voltage 
shutdown, and an ABL as well. That is 
used in the Magnavox T989 chassis. 
Some other sets may use one or both of 
those or a minor variation. However, they 
all do the same things. By the way, in all 
sets, watch out for "run changes!" Some 
chassis may not have the circuitry shown 
on the schematic you have. For example, 
the early run of the T989 didn't use 
Q303, the high-voltage protection tran- 
sistor; it is used in later runs. (It's on the 
mother board just in front of the flyback 
panel.) Both of the circuits shown do the 
same thing: trip the SCR shutdown to kill 
the drive to the horizontal-output stage. 
The circuit on the "D" panel senses high 
voltage, while Q303 senses beam current. 



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Magnavox recommends that when a tripl- 
er has failed you should check the ABL 
stage and the LLV (Low-Level Video) 
board for possible damage to the ABL 
circuit from transients produced when 
the tripler went out. 

Tripler arcing isn't always "terminal." 
My friend Leon Caldwell has found some 
triplers in Philco and Sylvania sets that 
have arced through the bottom of the 
case, through the encapsulant. Lift the 
case away from ground, and the unit 
works fine. 

He cleaned all of the carbon off the 
bottom, then plastered it with silicone 
rubber sealant. The case was set up on 
insulating blocks, and the space below it 
filled with that sealant. Worked perfect- 
ly — no callbacks. I've also heard that 
Zenith is sending out, together with each 
tripler sold, small tubes of that type of 
sealant. It's used to cover all of the tripler 
terminals to prevent corona or arcover. 

In another Magnavox, Leon found 
what seemed to be high-voltage trouble; 
raster gradually darkened and went out. 
Checking, he found that by pushing the 
videomatic button and adjusting the 
preset controls, the raster came back! 
That was suspected when the high voltage 
was found to be up with a dark raster. 
Cleaning the switch was all it took to fix 
it up. 

An odd case showed up in a Sylvania 
CX4146W. After repairs to the vertical 
circuits, retrace lines showed up in the 
raster. Not really objectionable, but visi- 
ble. Two days after the set was sent home, 
the owner reported a loud snapping noise. 
That was due to arcing from the tripler, 
which had burnt a hole in the case. After 
it was replaced, the set worked fine and 
the retrace lines were gone. The techni- 
cian who sent that in didn't have an expla- 
nation, and neither do I — but it hap- 
pened. 

Incidentally, there have been other 
cases with similar symptoms which 
turned out to be a bad electrolytic filter 
capacitor in the automatic brightness lim- 
iter circuit; on the sense-voltage line from 
the tripler. Check for that possibility if 
you run into that problem. 

So; if you suspect tripler trouble, make 
the tests given, to make sure that it is 
actually the tripler, and not some of the 
other circuits. As usual, there are a num- 
ber of things that can fake you out, so be 
sure to be on the lookout for them! Good 
luck! R-E 

Service Questions on page 98 




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SERVICE CLINIC 

continued from page 96 



service 
questions 

HOT SCREEN RESISTOR 
I've got an odd problem. The damper 
tube in this J.C. Penney 4849 A got red hot 
and burned out. While making voltage 
checks with it out, R904, 220 ohms got 
very hot. (Note: That is the horizontal out- 
put tube screen resistor.) What is the 
cause? — V.F., Nebraska City, HE. 

Crystal ball says that damper tube 
could have shorted internally; or, the 
6GK6 horizontal output tube is shorted. 
The hot resistor in the screen is normal 1 . 
If you pull the damper tube, you have no 
plate voltage on the output tube. The 
screen grid, being the only element sup- 
plied with voltage, thinks it's the plate 
and tries to conduct ail the current. In 
some sets, I've seen that tube looking like 
a toaster! The screen grid gets red hot! 

Current meter in cathode of 6GK6 will 
tell you whether that stage is taking too 
much current. With the damper tube out, 
all current in that stage must flow 
through the 6GK6 cathode. 

ROLL CHARTS FOR TUBE TESTERS 

On a question as to availability of new 
roll-charts for tube testers, I replied, 
truthfully, that I'd been looking for years 
and never located a reliable source. John 
E. Johnson of Thomasville, GA, comes 
back with this little jewel: 

Coletronics Service Inc., 1 744 Rocka- 
way Ave,, Hewlett, NY 11557, has new 
charts for Precision Tube-Master Series 
10-12, for $8.95 plus 50£ shipping. The 
Hickok Electrical Instrument Co. advised 
him that for charts for an old TV-7 B/U, 
to contact: U.S. Navy Supplies, 5801 
Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120. We 
pass that along for anyone who might 
have one of these instruments. Thanks, 
John. 

FOCUS PROBLEM 

I'm having a focus problem with an 
RCA CTC-22. The damper diode was 
shorted. Changing that restored high 
voltage but not focus. — L.N., Philadel- 
phia, PA. 

I suggest checking all the loads, etc. 
Since the focus voltage in that chassis 
comes from the boost voltage, check all of 
the capacitors around the horizontal effi- 
ciency coil and the coil itself. 

(Feedback: "I tried those things. The 
horizontal efficiency coil was shorted! 
Thanks!") 

ODD RASTER DISTORTION 

Al Yarborough of Yarborough Elec- 
tronics, Lexington, NC, sends this along: 
"Here's field feedback for you. This 



Toshiba C-095 had a peculiar raster dis- 
tortion. The upper left hand corner was 
expanded diagonally. Blooming was pre- 
sent in that area, too. Not due to high- 
voltage regulation, either. 

"You suggested checking for feedback. 
In a way, that's what it was! A 100 juF 
capacitor in the pincushion stage appar- 
ently had a high power factor. It checked 
OK on an ohmmeter. A capacitor tester 
showed it as less than 50 u¥. Replacing 
that fixed it. 

"Last question: Years ago, they told us 
that transistors would do away with inter- 
mittents. When are they going to start 
making those perfect devices?" 

Thanks, Al. To your last question, I've 
been wondering for many years! 

HOT RESISTOR 

In this GE 25MB chassis, the breaker 
tripped. I pulled the high-voltage module 
and that cleared it up. A new module 
didn't help. Resistor R1318 was high and 
showed signs of heating. I changed it and 
the new one overheats. All other modules 
were checked. What's going on here?— 
C.C., Amityville, Nl. 

Resistor R1318 is a series resistor in 
what seems to be a crowbar circuit in the 
high-voltage regulator module. It's con- 
nected from the + 1 70V line through 
Q1304, an SCR, to ground. The SCR 
gate is triggered by sensing the + 150- 
volt regulated DC output. That circuit 
uses a series Zener diode, and a couple of 
others. Check the SCR and if it's not 
shorted, check the trigger diode and oth- 
ers. Something seems to be firing the 
SCR! 

WIGGLE IN SETUP LINE 

This Sylvania D-12 had several wrin- 
kles in the left end of the setup lines in 
with the service switch in the service posi- 
tion. Couldn't think of any reason for it. 
You suggested it might be something in 
the deflection yoke. This was a new Thor- 
darson. Turned out that it had a 680 pF 
capacitor on the top half of the horizontal 
winding. Replacing that with 100 pF cor- 
rected the wiggle and the other problems. 
Thanks for the aid. William J. Shinn, 
New Carlisle, OH. 

Thanks to you Mr. Shinn! Definite 
feedback from the field is a huge help to 
everyone. 

GASSY TUBE? 

/ replaced the horizontal output and 
damper tube in this Zenith 12B14C50. 
Works beautifully. However after about 15 
minutes of operation, I see little blue 
flashes around the bottom of the hori- 
zontal output tube. Tried a new one and 
got same thing. Is that tube gassy? — R.O., 
Daly City, CA. 

This is a very old problem showing up 
in a new set! There are two things that 
can cause "blue glow" inside of tubes 
with high voltages applied. One, of 
course, is "gas," meaning just a wee bit or 



air leakage. The typical symptom of that 
is a soft cloudy blue glow but looking 
closely, you'll see thai it is inside the plate 
cylinder or rectangle. 

A similar thing that's fooled lots of us 
is really quite different. Check your tube; 
see if those blue flashes are actually on 
the inside wall of the bulb! See if it flick- 
ers too. That is just the opposite of gas: 
It's called fluorescence and is due to a 
wee bit of the getter material on the walls. 
That lights up under a high voltage field, 
means a very hard vacuum! 

ODD PROBLEMS 

First thing on this Zenith 19CC19 was 
no red. Changed the IC demodulator and 
fixed that. Now I've got a weird symptom: 
good picture in the center of the screen 
but both sides are bowed in; that area is 
blank. Controls all work. What is it?— J. V., 
Punxsutawney, PA. 

It sounds to me that you're getting 
some 60- Hz sinewave blanking into the 
video. Just for luck, scope the DC power 
supplies, especially the +25 and +34 
volt outputs. I see that the +25 volts 
come directly from the vertical centering 
control and the B + . There would nor- 
mally be a 60-Hz pulse here and it should 
be filtered out by the 500-^F electrolytic 
on this line. Check that one. 

LOW VOLTAGES AND VERTICAL 
PROBLEMS 

In this 16M9t Philco, several of the volt- 
ages are tow and the boost voltage fluctu- 
ates quite a lot. Can't get a setup line with 
the service switch in the service position. 
Vertical linearity control arcs, too. What 
are all those?— C.G., Deny, NH. 

Easy one first: If your boost voltage is 
low, chances are your picture tube 
screens are, too. That could be why no 
setup lines. Replace that vertical linearity 
control if it's arcing internally. 

For the rest of the problems, that could 
be something that is common to the 
whole circuit! In other words, one of the 
filter capacitors. (From looking at the 
schematic, it is suspiciously like my own 
old CTC-I5 RCA! So, if I say "filter 
capacitors", I know whereof I speak. I've 
been there. Check all of those ground 
points on the PC board, too.) 

Feedback: It was the electrolytic capac- 
itor on the +275-volt line! Bingo. 

LOW-VOLTAGE PROBLEM 
There are no low voltages from the fly- 
back in this Sears 528. 42000400. No 
+27.2 volts DC or +28.8 volts at all. The 
diode, D504, seems to be good. I see a 
high pulse on the flyback side (anode) 
but none on the cathode, and no DC volt- 
age. The high-voltage, boost, etc., are 
very close to normal. Thanks for any 
help. — G.P., Silver Spring, MD. 

You should see pulses on the anode of 
D504, but you should not see any at all on 
the cathode. There is a 1 ,000 ,uF capacitor 
to ground here! From your symptoms, the 



only thing I can see is an open diode! If 
the pulse is present and no DC voltage is 
developed, the diodes may be open, or the 
1 ,000 ^F capacitor shorted. Your flyback 
pulse output seems to be normal, since all 
of the other voltages are in the ballpark:. 
Be sure to use a fast-recovery type diode 
for D504. Ordinary sinewave types won't 
last more than 30 seconds! 

A DISCO-PICTURE 

This J.C. Penney model 286S came in 
with an odd symptom. The picture 
brightness varied like a strobe light in a 
disco. Also, no color and a small raster. 
Scoping the DC supply showed a saw- 
tooth of almost 80 volts! After quite a bit 
of checking, C807 was found open. 
(Note: That is a 1 .0 (iF capacitor, on the 
base of clipper TR802, from the collector 
of the sawtooth generator TR801 . Part of 
saw-forming network, on the regulator 
board.) 

That caused the regulator to hunt, and 
almost go into oscillation. Replacing it 
cleared up the problem. 

Thanks to Dean Carpenter, N5AFT, in 
Garland, TX, for that helpful hint. 



PIEZOELECTRIC 
contiiuwd from pttf>e 60 

LED's can be checked easily using 
the CONTINUITY mode of the tester 
because the LED will glow when pro- 
perly connected (correct polarity). 
When the test leads to the LED are 
reversed, there will be no sound be- 
cause the LED is open in that direc- 
tion. In the same manner, you can 
test infrared (IR) LED's even though 
you cannot see the IR LED glow. If 
you get a sound in both directions, the 
LED is shorted (the same as for a 
shorted diode). Sound in one direc- 
tion shows that the LED or diode is 
conducting in the forward direction 
(front-to-back) and no sound in the 
opposite direction (no conduction) 
shows thai the back-io-front ratio is 
good. 

Voltage Tester — Voltage-level tests 
can be made by using the piezoelec- 
tric sounder in its basic mode, where 
I to 20 volts DC is applied to its ter- 
minals. It can be used safely in tran- 
sistor and TTL circuits, automobile 
trouble-shooting, checking the gen- 
eral condition of batteries, including 
watch and calculator batteries, because 
of its low current drain. It is handy for 
testing in any circuit where you want 
a general indication of correct circuit 
activity and where you use the ear in- 
stead of the eye to tell you this con- 
dition. Piezoelectric sounder and audio 
alerting devices are more and more com- 
ing into our lives advising us of condi- 
tions in the environment surrounding 
us. May they always beep or sound in 
your favor! r-e 



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AM/FM RECEIVER, model R6. is one of a line of 
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er output. Otfier features are a low-noise circuit 
for increased stability with low distortion, a high- 
speed amplifier section, and external jacks for 
signal or tape accessories. Model Reproduces 60 
watts-per-channel Into 8 ohms, from 20 Hz to 
20,000 Hz with 0.05% THD. Suggested retail price 
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SPEAKERS, Mitsubishi model MS-2Q and model 
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Other features are overload protection circuits 
and tweeter structures that reduce reverberation. 
The MS-20 (shown) can handle power up to 120 
watts; MS-W up to 100 watts. Model MS-20 
weighs 40 lbs. and measures 14V. X 24 J A X 11% 
inches. Suggested retail price is $250. Model MS- 
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Melco Sales, Inc., 3030 E. Victoria St., Complon, 
CA 90221. 

COMPACT DIRECT-DRIVE TURNTABLE, model 
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CIRCLE 133 ON FREE INFORMATION CARE) 



user places a record on the turntable, closes the 
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AC Adaptor for DM350 @ $4.95 each : $ 

AC Adaptor for DM450 @ $4.95 each : $ 

Shipping/Handling at single rate per order : $ 

New Jersey residents add appropriate Sales tax: $ 




5.00' 



I enclose ... 

nCheck fj Money Order OMaster Charge QVisa 

(Allow 2 - 3 weeks clearance time for personal checks) 

Credit Card No, . Exp. Date. 

NAME 



STREET . 
CITY __ 



STATE 



ZIP 



SEND TO: 



TOTAL : $ 



'Continental USA only 



NJS Technology Inc. 
P.O. Box 8247 
Haledon 
New Jersey 
07538 



R E 



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Tel. (201 1 790 3141 



101 




"GIVE ME ONE GOOD REASON 
WHY I SHOULD JOIN NESDA?" 

Reason No.1: PROFIT 

Haven't you felt frustrated 
because your profits seem 
to fly away before you 
can put them in your 
pocket? 

What you get from 
your NESDA membership 
can help you keep more 
the money you take in. 

WANT 9 MORE GOOD REASONS 
TO JOIN NESDA? 

2. Industry information 

3. ServiceShop magazine^ 

4. Electronics Service 

Industry Yearbook 

5. Advocate for better 

warranty practices 

6. Group-rate insurance 

7. Technical information 

8. Management information 

9. Legislative programs with 

state and rtat'l. gov is. 
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At NESDA, the bottom 
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NESDA, 2708 W. Berry St. V&U}/ 
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More information on computer products is available. 
Use the Free Information Card inside the back cover. 



TOUCH SCREEN DIGITIZER, TSD- 12, eliminates 

the need lor keyboards and light pens at comput- 
er terminals. To select an item from the "menu" 
presented on the screen, all the operator has to 
do is touch his finger to It. 




CIRCLE 121 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

Applications include: executive data-base in- 
teraction, computer-aided instruction, voter reg- 
istration, banking, and other situations where an 
operator must interact with a computer data 
base. 

Prices range from $950 for a unit with parallel 
unfiltered data output to $1,200 for one with fil- 
tered RS-232 output and power supply. A special 
one-time evaluation unit with RS-232 interface 
and power supply is available for $995. OEM pric- 
ing is available upon request. — TSD Display 
Products, Inc., 35 Orville Drive. Bohemia, NY 
11716. 

CP/M— COMPATIBLE DESKTOP MICROCOM- 
PUTER series, the Quay 500 and 520 is based on 
Quay's 94F/MPS single-board computer with 
32K of RAM (expandable to 64K). Both systems 
use two 5'A-inch disc drives with DMA. The model 
500 has a storage capacity of 400 kilobytes (for- 




CIRCLE 122 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

matted), single-sided, double density, and the 
520 uses double-sided, double-density drives to 
give over BOO kilobytes of storage. 

A parallel and serial port are standard and two 
additional serial ports can be added. An S-100 
bus adaptor is also available. 

The systems come with the CP/M Version 2.2 
operating system. Prices for the 500 and 520 ate 
$2,500 and $3,200. respectively— Quay Corpo- 
ration, P.O. Box 386, Freehold. NJ 07728. 

ADD-ON FLOPPY DISC system, the H-77, In- 
creases the storage and programming capability 
of the Heath kit H89 computer. The H-77 uses 
standard 5. 2 5- inch, hard sectored, 40-track disc- 
ettes. each capable of storing 100K of data. Typi- 
cal sector-access time is less than 250 milli- 
seconds. 

Adding the H-77 to the H89 means that, not 
only is storage capacity increased, but both sys- 



tem and program discs can be run at the same 
time, giving fast and efficient access to programs 
and data and making disc duplication simple. 

Kit price is $595 and includes one drive. A sec- 
ond drive, the H- 17-1 is available for $325. A fac- 
tory-assembled version, the WH-87 includes both 




CIRCLE 123 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

drives and is priced at $1195. An adaptor kit. the 
H-SS-(J($50) Is required to install the WH-77. All 
prices are F.O.B. Benton Harbor, Ml). — Heath 
Company (a subsidiary of Zenith Radio Corpora- 
tion). Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 

MUSIC SYNTHESIZER for the TRS-80, The Mu- 
sic Box, Is a complete hardware/software tool 
that enables you to generate music and sound 
effects using your computer. 

The Music Box can play up to four notes simul- 
taneously and has a range of seven octaves. The 
waveforms generated can be modified so that the 
music can sound as if played by as many as four 
different Instruments at the same time. In addi- 




CIRCLE 124 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

tlon, a variety of sound effects and noises, such 
as explosions, gun shots, and "phasors," can be 
produced. 

Connection Is made to the TRS-80 keyboard or 
expansion interface by means of a cable. The 
Music Box Includes a volume control, audio 
amplifier and jack for connection to an external 
speaker or amplifier. Software Is supplied on Lev- 
el II cassette or disc. A Level II computer with 32K 
or more of memory is recommended. 

Price is $249 with software and user's manual. 
Add $3 for shipping and $1 more if COD. — New- 
tech Computer Systems, Inc., 230 Clinton St., 
Brooklyn, NY 11201. R-E 



102 



0Dc3C27/j^S 



More information on new lit is available. Use the 
Free Information Card inside the back cover 



ELECTRONICS CATALOG, 55 pages, lists a vari- 
ety of quality parts from over 40 manufacturers. 
Covered are regulators, capacitors, resistors, 
transistors, IC's. soldering irons, and hundreds of 
Other products. Price Information and order form 
Included.— Tri-Tek, Inc., 7808 N. 27th Ave., 
Phoenix. AZ 85021, 

CIRCLE 99 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

MICROCOMPUTER BOOKS, is a 14-page bro- 
chure featuring a comprehensive four-volume se- 
ries introducing microcomputers and books on 
assembly language and logic design. Descrip- 
tions and complete table of contents are provid- 
ed. Also listed are BASIC software and program 
manuals, including three business applications 
programs and 76 short programs with cassette 
tape for use with the Commodore PET. Osborne/ 
McGraw-Hill, 630 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, CA 
94710. 
CIRCLE 141 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

COMPUTER ACCESSORIES, Catalog No, 112, 
contains 16 pages of software, computer boards, 
systems, printers, semiconductors, and PC aids 
designed for the computer enthusiast, novice, 
and businessperson. Each product is described 
in great detail. Quantity and club discounts avail- 
able—Hobby World Electronics, 19511 Busi- 
ness Center Dr.. Morthrldge, CA 91324. 
CIRCLE 142 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

PERSONAL COMPUTER CATALOG, No. 6, con- 
tains 20 pages full of books, software, and mer- 
chandise for the computer enthusiast. Offered 
are back issues of popular computer magazines, 
and books on various subjects including micro- 
computers, games, business programs, BASIC 
language, and much more. Their software In- 
cludes many different games available in cassette 
or floppy disk form, T-shirts and posters are also 
featured. Order form enclosed. — Creative Com- 
puting, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. 
CIRCLE 143 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

HI-FI CATALOG, is an illustrated 32 -page book- 
let describing AM/FM stereo receivers, inte- 
grated amplifiers, AM/FM stereo tuners, front- 
load cassette decks, audio analyzers, direct-drive 
turntables, and loudspeaker systems. In addition 
to photographs and descriptions, there is an 
overall set of tables In the final pages listing spec- 
ifications so that the reader can compare the 
claims for one mode! with another.— H. H. Scott, 
Inc., 20 Commerce Way. Woburn, MA 01801. 
CIRCLE 144 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

TWO-WAV MOBILE RADIO CATALOG, 1980, is 
an 8-page illustrated brochure covering base sta- 
tion equipment, remote-control equipment, mo- 
bile car telephone equipment, mobile radio 
equipment, paging equipment, and portable ra- 
dio equipment, including two-way portable ra- 
dios. — Mobile Technical Service Corp., 6019 
South Kenton Way, Engfewood, CO B0111. 
CIRCLE 145 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

ARCHER SEMICONDUCTOR REPLACEMENT 
GUIDE, 1980 edition, is a 2 24- page book, featur- 
ing cross-reference/substitution listings for over 
100,000 devices. It's a comprehensive guide to 
Radio Shack's complete line of Archer-brand 



semiconductors and includes detailed data and 
pin connections lor IC's, diodes. SCR's, LED's. 
and other devices. 

There is information on the care of transistors 
and integrated circuits, case styles and dimen- 
sions, transistor testing, display and optoelec- 
tronic devices. A glossary of word symbols, and 
abbreviations Is also Included. 

The 1980 edition Of this replacement guide Is 
$1.99 and can be obtained from participating 
Radio Shack stores and dealers throughout the 
U.S.A.— Radio-Shack, 1300 One Tandy Center, 
Fort Worth. TX 76102. 

CIRCLE 146 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

MINI-SCOPE SELECTION GUIDE 1979, is a full- 
color, 4-page leaflet presenting photos and brief 
specifications of mini-scopes (general-purpose, 
portable oscilloscopes that weigh 15 lbs. or less, 
are small enough to fit Into a tool kit or briefcase, 
and can operate from self-contained battery 
power) and mini-scopes with DMM-counters. The 
back cover gives detailed ordering Information 
and a list of sales representatives in U.S. metro- 
politan areas. — Vu-data Corporation, 7170 Con- 
voy Court, San Diego, CA 92111. 
CIRCLE 147 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

TURNTABLE/CASSETTE CATALOGS, Dual 
turntables and Dual cassette decks. Each catalog 
contains 12 illustrated pages. The turntables all 
feature ULM [Utra Low Mass) lonearms and car- 
tridge systems and models range from single play 
to fully automatic. The cassette decks feature the 
new DLL (Direct Load and Lock) system. Charts 
on the back covers give a breakdown of the spe- 
cific features to be found on each model, and 
photos shows how they are laid out. — United 
Audio, 120 So. Columbus Ave.. Mt. Vernon. NY 
10533. 
CIRCLE 148 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

KESTER SOLDER (NEW EDITION) is an Illus- 
trated, two-color, 12-page brochure covering 
Kester's broad line of solders and fluxes. The 
brochure covers acid and resin -co red solders, 
flux-cored silver bearing solders, and radiator 
solder, as well as Kester's half-pound spools of 
acid-core, solid wire and "44" resin-core solders. 
Also described are package-goods solders and 
other carded merchandise — metal mender, TV- 
radio solder, aluminum-repair solder, solder 
paste flux, and related chemical products. A spe- 
cial feature is questions and answers about sol- 
dering, and a 6-step Instruction on soldering pro- 
cedure. — Kesler Solder, 4201 Wrightwood Ave., 
Chicago, I L 60639. 
CIRCLE 149 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 

SAMS COMPUTER BOOKS, 1980 Catalog, con- 
tains 19 illustrated pages In two colors describing 
one of the industry's largest selection of comput- 
er and computer-based items. 

The catalog Is laid out in five areas for easy 
reference: Basics, Programming, Computer 
Technology, Reference, and Computer-related 
books. The selections are directed to a wide 
range of people and interests, from the home 
hobbyist to the technically-oriented profession- 
al. — Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc. 4300 W. 62nd 
St., PO Box 7092, Indianapolis, IN 46206. R-E 

CIRCLE ISO ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



Put Professional Knowledge and a 

COLLEGE DEGREE 

in your Electronics Career through 

HOME 
STUDY. 




Earn Your 

DEGREE 

by correspondence, while continuing your 
present job. No commuting to class. Study 
at your own pace. Learn from complete and 
explicit lesson materials, with additional 
assistance from our home-study instructors. 
Advance as fast as you wish, but take all 
the time you need to master each topic. 

The Grantham electronics degree pro- 
gram begins with basics, leads first to the 
A.S.E.T. degree, and then to the B.S.E.T. 
degree. Our free bulletin gives complete 
details of the program itself, the degrees 
awarded, the requirements for each degree, 
and how to enroll. (We are located at 2500 
S. LaCienega Bl., Los Angeles, Calif.) Write 
to our mailing address shown below for 
Bulletin R-80 

Grantham College of Engineering 

P. O. Box 35499 

Los Angeles, California 90035 

Worldwide Career Training thru Home Study 




Now you can 

boost 

your 400 or 800 

to 16K performance 

in just 1 6 minutes. 

Mosaic Electronics has now developed a 
RAM expansion kit that can up-grade your 
Atari 400 or 800 to 16K performance The 
modification takes just 16 minutes RAM 
expansion Kit meets or exceeds OEM timing 
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ELECTRONICS 

PO Box 748 • Oregon City. OR 97045 

Mosaic EHiclronics is in no way alliliawd with 
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CIRCLE 56 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



CO 
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"0 



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□ 



103 



o 



LU 



NOISE-REDUCTION SYSTEM 

continued from page 62 

low low-frequency signals as contin- 
uous level changes and will introduce 
unacceptable bass distortion. 

Spectrum division used in the High 
Com //system solves that problem, too. 
Since high and low-frequency signals 
are processed independently, time 
constants for the high and low-band 
circuits can be optimized for each par- 
ticular range of frequencies. The result 
is extremely accurate reproduction 
of musical transients, as illustrated by 
the tone-burst signal (Fig. 6) processed 
via a High Com II system. The fre- 
quency within the tone burst was 10 
kHz and only a few cycles of that tone 
were at anything but correct full ampli- 
tude after the burst was initiated. 

Figure 7 is a dual-exposure oscil- 
loscope photo showing the effective- 
ness of the High Com II system in 
removing noise components from low- 
level signals. The upper trace was 
observed during playback of a 400-Hz 
signal recorded and played back at a 
level of -40 dB without the use of any 
noise reduction. Note that the noise 
amplitude (blurry thickening of the 400- 
Hz sinewave) is not much lower than 
the signal itself. The lower trace re- 
presents the playback of a 400-Hz sig- 
nal recorded at the same input level. 




Fig, 6— EXCELLENT TRANSIENT RESPONSE 
of High Com II illustrated by 10-KHz tone burst. 




Fig. 7— LOW-LEVEL 400 Hz signal recorded 
and played back with and without the High- 
Corn II. 

but this time recorded and played back 
using the High Com II noise- reduction 
system. 

Nakamichi was probably wise to offer 
the High Com II as an outboard device 
since it can be connected to any exist- 
ing cassette deck and, in addition, those 
listeners who are presently owners of 
reel-to-reel equipment can also avail 
themselves of this new noise-reduction 
system. R-e 



Kieps 30 



Kleps 40 



Clever Kleps 



^ Write for complete catalog of - test probes, plugs, sockets, 
i- connectors, earphones, headsets, miniature components 
O 



ictors, 

rye 




DON'T 
FORGET 



Test probes designed by your needs - 

to release (all Kleps spring loaded). 
Kit pi 10. Boathook clamp --grips wires, lugs, terminals. 
Accepts banana plug or bare wire lead. 4%" long. 
Kleps 20. Same, but 7" long. 

Kleps 30. Completely flexible. Forked-tongue gripper. Ac- 
cepts banana plug or bare lead. 6" long. 
Kleps 40. Completely flexible. 3-segment automatic collet 
firmly grips wire ends, PC-board terminals, connector pins. 
Accepts banana plug or plain wire. 6V4" long. 
Kleps 1. Economy Kleps for light line work [not lab quality). 
Meshing claws. 4V4" long. 

Pruf 10. Versatile test prod. Solder connection. Molded 
phenolic. Doubles as scribing tool. "Bunch" pin fits banana 
jack. Phone tip. 5Vi" long. 




A vailabie through your local 

distributor, or write to: 

RYE INDUSTRIES INC 

132 Spencer Place, Mamaroneck, N.Y. 10543 
In Canada: Rye Industries (Canada) Ltd. 



USE 
YOUR 

READER 
SERVICE 

CARD 



HOW TO CONNECT HOME VIDEO 

continued from page 54 

patch panel. Run all of your different 
inputs and output to a central front 
panel and use bulkhead fittings and 
jumpers that have been fitted with 
BNC type connectors or coax push-on 
fittings. You want them to be secure 
but easily rearranged depending on 
how you are currently routing the sig- 
nals. If you try to use a switching net- 
work in this type of system you can ex- 
pect problems. (Isolation within the 
switch becomes a critical factor so if 
you want to use a switching network, 
spend the money for good quality 
switches). 

You might find that it is necessary 
to trap out one particular channel to 
make room in the system for insertion 
of a pay-TV device or additional VCR. 
Use a high-Q type trap that will effec- 
tively drop out the desired channel 
without affecting any adjacent channel. 

If you use the installations that have 
been described as guidelines, you 
should be able to set up your own home 
video system to meet all of your par- 
ticular needs. r-e 



I TREE 

CATALOGS 

D Software, Lists 400 pro- 
grams on 70 tapes and 
disks. For education, recre- 
ation, and personal use. 

D Books. Lists 100 books, 
games, records, prints, etc. 
for educational and per- 
sonal users of small compu- 
ters. 

□ Peripherals. (ALF music 
synthesizer and Versa- 
Writer for the Apple II)- 

Send 3 15 <t stamps for 
either catalog or 5 for both. 
Or send $2.00 for a sample 
issue of Creative Computing 
and both catalogs. 

creative 

DEPT. REHG 

P.O. Box789-M 

Morristown, NJ 07960 



104 



^UNIPROCESSORS: FROM CALCULATORS TO 
COMPUTERS, by David L. Heiserman. TAB 
Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214. 196 pp. 5 
X 8V< in. Softcover $5.95; hardcover $9.95. 

This book teaches the computer hobbyist how 
to turn a calculator into a functional hybrid calcu- 
lator/computer system {or supercalculator) by 
adding on memofy-control circuit boards, I/O 
boards, branching and looping systems, etc. You 
first learn how to build a basic arithmetic calcula- 
tor, and then proceed step-by-step to a fully pro- 
grammable system with randomly addressable 
256-step memory. Construct ion techniques are 
given plus full circuit description, component 
specs and schematics. 

THE MULTITRACK PRIMER, by Dick Rosmini. 
TEAC Corp. of America, 7733 Telegraph Rd,, 
Montebello, CA 90640. 46 pp. 8V, X 11 in. Soft- 
cover $4.95. 

This booklet acquaints readers with multitrack 
recording and covers all the basics from setup 
and layout to cue systems and mikes. It covers 
such topics as designing a basic studio for a one- 
man keyboard or guitar, and shows you how to 
build a tent and baffle. The text is accompanied 
by charts and line drawings. 

ALL ABOUT TELEPHONES, by Van Waterford. 
Tab Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214. 190 
pp. 5 X SV< in. Softcover $4.95. 



Now that it's legal and possible to own your 
own telephone system, this book provides an 
answer to the most common questions, such as 
how to go about getting your own phone, trie 
types available, and what is or isn't permissible to 
do according to FCC regulations. Chapter 2 
describes how a telephone works and how It is 
installed. Chapter 4 details the FCC requirements 
for both owner and telephone company. Other 
chapters describe types of phones (picturephone. 
speakerphone, cordless, etc.) security devices 
and mobile units. 

HEAR ALL THE ACTION, by Van Waterford. 
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., 4300 W. 62 St., 
Indianapolis, IN 40269. 128 pp. 57. X 8V. in. Soft- 
cover $5.25. 

The book guides the hobbyist through the 
world of International communications via the DX 
receiver. It starts with a history of DX'ing and a 
description of radio-wave fundamentals such as 
frequency, VHF/UHF bands, wavelength, etc. 
Chapter 2 tells you how to Shop for a receiver; 
Chapter 3 describes accessories and aids; and 
Chapter 4 deals with antennas. An appendix con- 
tains a glossary ot terms and lists the abbrevia- 
tions and codes used In shortwave transmis- 
sions. 

RADAR DETECTOR HANDY MANUAL, by Van 
Waterford. Tab Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 



17214. 79 pp. 5 X 87. in. Softcover $2.25. 

This handy guide to radar detectors explains 
the principles, installation and use of these 
devices, and tells you how to detect highway 
police radar signals. It also describes how the 
detectors work, and gives details on radar circuit- 
ry. The book includes handy hints on how to avoid 
speeding violations, plus a chapter on the CB lin- 
go used in reference to police radar. 

THE CAMEO DICTIONARY OF CREATIVE AU- 
DIO TERMS. Creative Audio S Music Electron- 
ics Organization, 10 Dolmar Avenue, Framing- 
ham, MA 01701. 100 pp. 57: X 87. in. Softcover 
$4.95. 

This first comprehensive dictionary of creative 
audio terminology that has ever been compiled is 
aimed at the reader who Is riot technically 
inclined. The definitions, from "A-B test" to "ze- 
nith adjustment" are brief and clearly presented, 
with diagrams and tables where needed. The 
Object of the book is to provide fundamental and 
working knowledge of creative audio terminology 
to all who are involved In this field and Industry; it 
will be of no less value to the Interested reader, 
too, who may just be curious what some of those 
words and phrases that audiophiles use are 
about. The dictionary was compiled by Gary Dav- 
is & Associates and the focus is on sound record- 
ing, sound reinforcement, and signal processing 
for the performing artist. R-E 



PROTECT YOUR CAR 
AGAINST AUTO THEFT 



^i_ ^^r^ XrV l\_ ^ AGAINST AUTO THE 

wgp*^ tfLrft* 8, Electronics 

#*\^^\\ i-tV 1 * "tyV im&liitiiUfaltmiTIUlIC *«(ipril»»»4ll»«m 



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105 






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or 

>- 
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a 

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WANTED 



PRE-WWII and early television sets wanted. Will 
pay top dollar for any set featured In June Radio- 
Electronics issue ARNOLD CHASE, 9 Rushleigh 
Road, West Hartford, CT 061 17 



SONY TC105 tapecorder. 
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TIM McNEAL, Box 



EDUCATION & INSTRUCTION 

UNIVERSITY degrees by mail! Bachelors, Mas- 
ters, Ph.D's . , . Free revealing details, COUN- 
SELING, Box 317-RE9, Tustln, CA 92680 

HOME study degree program in electronics engi- 
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For information write: CIEE, P.O. Box 9196, Pltts- 
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THE Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics 863 pps 
send $14.96 to: SDG RESEARCH, 3947 Delta, 
Hosemead. CA 91770 



WANTED. Programming manual for Inforex 1302 
system computer, write to. CHRISTOPHER CA- 
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39 


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transistor?; 


CD4O0CBE 


.29 


CO4021BE 


.74 


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.89 


004082SE 


23 


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1.47 


T1P29 


33 


NPN 1 AMP 1 00V 


CD4001BE 


.39 


CO4022BE 


1.11 


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63 


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.94 


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.23 


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JV7 


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.54 


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.79 


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40 


TIP30 


.31 




CO40068E 


Lit 


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!_D-'.09:lEE 


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1.15 


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42 


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44 


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84 


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1.70 


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1.19 


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1.99 


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140 


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49 


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44 


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.to 








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45 


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JO 


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88 


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1-99 








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1.70 


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245 


CD4582BE 


41 








CO4014BE 


69 


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2,70 


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2-10 


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44 


TIP122 


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NPN 5AMP100V 


CD4015BE 


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1.14 


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.33 


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1.29 


C04585BE 


41 








CD4015BE 


.44 


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.99 


CD4073SE 


M 


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49 


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t-9t 


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45 


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M 


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49 






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1.35 


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98 


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-99 










NPN 15 AMP 50V 


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41 


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LED209 


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T-1*45 mm Often 




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.1* 


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JM 


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99 


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DL704 


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1.29 


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4 *ail. 1f 


segment alphanumeric diaptay 16* hi. 




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1500V 


141 


T1L111 


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1600V 


44 


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2500V 


Jt4 


4N33 


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1500V 


46 


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- - J 



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FOR SALE 



SCANNER/monitor accessories — kits and facto- 
ry assembled. Free catalog. CAPRI ELECTRON- 
ICS, Route 1R, Canon. GA 30520 

FREE catalog, IC'S. LED's. semi's, parts. CORO- 
NET ELECTRONICS, 649A Notre Dame W„ Mon- 
treal, Que.. Canada H3C 1H8. U.S. inquiries. 

RECONDITIONED test equipment. Si. 00 for cat. 
alog. JAMES WALTER TEST EQUIPMENT, 2697 
Nickel, San Pablo, CA 94806 

SAVE up to 50% on name brand test equipment. 
Free catalog and price list. SALEN ELECTRON- 
ICS, Box 82-M, Skokie, IL 60077 



The World's Hardest l.Q. Test 

as featured in Omni, April 1979 

Qualifying examination for Pour Sigma Society 

Taken by more than 20,900 people. 

$5, Including score report. 

Also available: 

The Two Cultures Test (S5) 

(Tests knowledge of science and humanities.) 

The Vocabulary Gradient Test ($3) 

Send SASE for complete list. 

POLYMATH, DEPT. R 

P.O. Box 795, Berkeley, CA 94791 



MICROWAVE TV downconverter, preamps, para- 
bolic dish antennas, remote tuning. Covers 2000 
MHz band. Write for information. LAB-TRONICS, 
Box 171, Rogers, MN 5S374 

GIANT communications guide. Info thru 1980. 
Worldwide LW- AM- FM- SW- RTTY- CW- Fax- 
satellite-VOLMET- marine- NOAA- QSL'S- etc. 
$20.00 ppd. GCG, 1 1625 W. McKlnley, Fresno, 
CA 93711 

TELEVISION downconverters and decoders 
$99.95 up. Details for stamp. GW ELECTRON- 
ICS, POB 688. Greenwood, IN 46142 

OSCILLOSCOPE, DC to 22 MHz. dual trace, 
Navy equivalent to HP170, $199. HAMMOND, 
1013 Lafayette Avenue, Colonial Heights. VA 
23834 



1. 5 Volt, 3 amp. Regulated Power Supply. 
Great for TTL Projects $19.50 

2. EMM 4200A, 4K Static RAMs, Ceramic 
A local memory boards manufacturer 
closed. We bought the new memory 
boards and took these 4200A static RAMs 
out. They are tested and 90-day guaran- 
teed 100% good. 

Prime tested 4200A 4K RAMs $5.50 ea. 

3. Super Saver. Micro PD41 1, Ceramic 4K x 
1 dynamic RAMs 8 for $10.00. 

WE BUY SURPLUS ELECTRONIC 
INDUSTRIAL INVENTORIES 

DELTRONIKS 

5151 eUFOflO HIGHWAY .. wi 
ATLANTA, SA MHO 



RAW speakers and finished systems for Hl-R and 
Sound Reinforcement. Also cabinet plans, hard- 
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log, £1.00. UNIVERSAL DISCOUNT SOUND, 
Dept. RE, 2243 Ringllng Blvd, Sarasota, FL 
33577 _^__^_ 

GOVERNMENT surplus receivers, transmitters, 
snooperscopes, parts, fantastic 72 page catalog 
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CABLE TV converters $39.95. Incredible 96-page 
catalog free. ETCO, Box 762, Pittsburgh, NY 
12901 



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RECORDS -tapes! Discounts to 73%; all labels; no 
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DISCOUNT MUSIC CLUB, 650 Main Street. 
Dept. 3-0980, New Rochelle, NY 10801 

VOLCANIC ash from Mount Saint Helens: glass 
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$4.00 to: ASH, 5268 35th N.E., Seattle, WA 
96105 

KEYBOARDS— High quality 61 note single or 
dual contact for the organ or synthesizer you are 
building. Send for information. DEVTRONIX, 
Dept. 70, 6101 Warehouse Way, Sacramento, CA 
95826 

COMPLETE gear for CB repair shop. Inciuding 
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South Main, Warrenton, OR 97146 



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Write ERVIN WARREN, Drawer R, Huntingdon, 
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SCRAMBLED television, encoding /decoding. 
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SHOP, Box 393 REA, Bethpage, NY 11714 

TEST equipment, new and used. Catalog $1.00, 
PTI, Box 87S6, White Bear Lake. MN 551 10 



CO 

o 

z 
o 

IX 

H 

o 

UJ 



O 
a 
< 



DIGITAL MULTIMETERS 

Sinclair P0M35 Hickok LX303 

Rt0.K8.95 

M9 95 




3V2-Dlgit 
Portable 
DMM 

Model 280 D 




Beckman 
JECH310 
*140 



Portable Oscilloscopes Mft 
15mhz mr*sm i m 

Dual Trace 
Triggered 



111 



Miniscope 

*389 9S w B S.< 5 "° d « IMS - 2,s 
15 MHz Triggered Miniscope 

Model MS-15 Reg KM9.S0 $00095 

30 MHz Dual Trace 
Triggered Miniscope 

Model MS -230 R-a S59S 15*499" * 



Logic Probe 

» Compact circuit powered ■ 
Delects pulses is short as 5T 
>isec ■ OTL'TTUHTL'CMOS, 
compaOMilir fAA 95 




Model 
LP-1 



RC Circuit Box 

• 36 resistors 1 15 11 
to 10 MSI) ■ 13 
capacitors (too pi to 

Bee W9 95 **£.. 

includes lest leads 



11 



VIZ Model WC -t12A 



Chess 
Challenger 7 

Reg.tllQ.oo Model 



79 



95 




MURAPHONE 
Cordless 

Telephone 
System 

Beg 5»9 .95 

*79 95 




GTE Flip-Phone Ti 

$ 37. 9 J, 



Function 
Generator 



Model SOOt 
Reo. $115.95 

$ 157 95 

■ Sine-. squirt-. 
Ertangle- ind 
separate TTL 
square wave 
Output ■ 

Frtquency raAge. 
IHMOOKHi 



^Portable VOM 
Multitester 

ft • ' 

rJoWl VDC ■ 10 Kil VACj 




HICKOK 

Digital CB In-Line 
Tester 

*169 95 ( 

Reg. 5399. DO 




100 MHz 8-Digit Counter 

• 20 Hz to 100 MHJ ^""l^V " ™ 
range. LED display J?;™,.™ 

• Fully sutomjlic *■) 27 



csscLogic Monitor 

Automatically 
splays static and 
dynamic logic » 
Model LM-1 Worts wi in DTL. HTL, 
SCQ95 n. arvt) CMOS • 15 
OV LED display 



mSImI.1 

N. \ dis 
VJ dyi 



WeUer'Xcelite' 
Attache 
Style 
Tool Case 

Model TCI 00 ST 

^95*299 95 

Service 

Master 
Tool Kit 

Model 99-SM 

S AV49 9S 




_ Portable 
Digital C apacitance 

Meter 

Mddel 120 

■ Measures 

capacitance 

iro-i Q.lpFto t Farad ■ Resolves to 

Q.lpF ■ 10 ranges lor accuracy and 

resolution ■ 4 diojl easy-to-read LED 

display ■ 5% accuracy 



Proto 

Preassembied 

sdfiMB* 

Fully assembled bread board 
conUms Idui QT-MS so&ets, 
seven 0T-59B bus strips and lour 
5- wjv binding posts 

* 




Proto Board with 
Built-in Power 
Supplies 

■ Regulated \ 

■ Shorl-prooi 

s 129 95 " a 1«A 




30 MHz LEADER" 

Dual Trace 

with Delay 
Line 

*899 95 

j^Hodtl LBO-S^O 




Welter-Controlled 
Output Soldering 
Station 




IWTCPN 

\ Beg S?? 50 

$5495 




6"x9" 3-Way Speaker 

■ 20 oz. ceramic magnet 
Model BPZO0B.E5TR jr^-; 

*14 95 ea ' 



Telephone 
Answering 

$24995 

*199 95 



COOE-4-PHONE 



Model I5DU 
Ciri Control 
Reg 5349.95 




FREE 

8 pc. Tool Set (value 
S14.95)wllhS?QQ.[ra 
purchase (cam litis ad. 



WAHL 

*£sm Cordless 
OO Soldering 
ww Iron 

*29 95 



Thvunot-Sbot tun ux 

Circuit Tester '29" 




Miniature High Fidelity 
3 -Way Stereo Speakers 

tgQ50 R W 51*9 95 




Model 
HF-9 



=st= 3 Vt- Dig it 0.1% Digital 
Capacitance Meter Mode, woi 

■9 ranges Irorn 1999 pF to 199.9 ^f 

' df reading accuracy 



«0 n 



S13O04 l/U 



DiGmoiiJLTjME™ Simpson 461 

flw- ^"K^ CorripJete with nsckel- 
cadmium baHenes, AC 
crtarger.' adapter, tesl 

" aits *1 49 95 





ln-0ash Car Stereos 

8 -Track Tape Player with 

AM'FM'MPX Radio. 

Model C-7T7r 

*52 50 

Cassette Tape Player 
with AM'FM'MPX Radio 
Medal 
CAS-M8 

*57 50 




BSRX-10 

W so 




Afg tar h 
S795O 

_. J«|li rMadtiriawK niq 5I1J« 

:z-.m QiaM i Ortt 1 11 Hj-4 Htv HUIKK untf ■ T» EAA95 

ui LKTi9M»j«*oniiii wimM yy~ 

CDnunwurConMH $M.OO 

(59.95 



Vitt***'.* V 



SIJ.50 ■■-■■ n 
SU.SO .■ .-. 

Portable Frequency J 
Counter b«« 'l^fe 




Stereo Power Booster 

Model PQW-40 tnjqc 

• WWsiem *24" 



855 Conklin St. Farming<Jale, N.Y. 11735 

! mZlyl^ZZ!* I *00 ran tMIPflllC un naourKi 
SSffiSm »»■ t l.K 

:SJf-!£2L Bsm» s«b in 

■ mob., ad., Dili mm Tie 

■ criKk t»ibqm 1BHH ie.ee 

HV SultnwovMIM vmieea.ei 1IH 

aapfH=pnalB t«d*g lax | CMri «fti 

ffi E L E L (800)645-9518 

in N.Y. Slate call (516) 752-0050 



108 



Radio Shack -Your No. 1 Parts Place® 

Low Prices and New Items Everv Dav! 



4000-Serie s CMO S ICs 



Low 
As 



89* 



Type 


Cat. No. 


Each 


4001 


276-2401 


.99 


4011 


276-241 1 


.89 


4013 


276-2413 


1.19 


4017 


276-241 7 


1.99 


4027 


276-2427 


1.19 


4511 


276-2447 


1.99 


4049 


276-2449 


.99 


4050 


276-2450 


.99 


4066 


276-2466 


1.S9 



Schottky 

ICs 



Low 
As 



79* 



Type 


Cat. No. 


Each 


74LS0O 


276-1900 


.79 


74LS02 


276-1902 


.79 


74LS04 


276-1904 


.79 


74LS08 


276-1 908 


.79 


74LS32 


276-1915 


.39 


74LS73 


276-1918 


.99 


74LS74 


276-1919 


.79 


74LS75 


276-1920 


.99 


74LS90 


276-1923 


1.19 


74LS123 


276-1926 


1.49 


74LS151 


276-1929 


1.09 


74LS157 


276-1930 


1.19 


74LS161 


276-1931 


1.59 


74LS164 


276-1932 


1.59 


74LS175 


276-1934 


1.39 


74LS193 


276-1936 


1.69 


74LS367 


276-1835 


1.59 



TTL Digital low gGC 



Type 


Cat. No. 


Each 


7400 


276-1801 


.69 


7402 


276-1811 


.79 


7404 


276-1802 


.79 


7408 


276-1822 


.79 


7447 


276-1805 


1.19 


7448 


276-1816 


1.29 


7473 


276-1803 


.79 


7474 


276-1818 


.99 


7475 


276-1606 


1 09 


7476 


276-1813 


.89 


7490 


276-1808 


1.09 


7492 


276-1819 


1.19 


74154 


276-1834 


1.49 


74192 


276-1831 


1.59 


74193 


276-1820 


1.49 



All 100% Prime from Ma- 
jor Manufacturers, Specs 
and Pin Out Diagram In- 
cluded with Eacn Device. 



Barrier Strips 
New! 

Low As 

1 19 

Rugged thermoplastic. Prevent shorts. 
Ideal for audio equipment, power sup- 
plies. Terminals extend ^ieT 




Terminals 


Cat. No. 


Each 


4 
6 
8 


274-651 
274-652 
274-653 


1.19 
1.49 
1.79 



New! 



IC Tool 
Set 

C95 



Built-in Pin 

StraigMener 

Handy insertion and extraction 
tools handle all 14 to 16-pin de- 
vices. Both tools easily grounded. 
276-1574 Set 6.95 




Speaker Terminals 
New! a 



1 



99 




Just right tor hi-fi, instrument or PA 
speakers. Push-terminals accept 
up to 16-ga. wire. Also has 2- 
conductor VI" phone jack with seal- 
ing plug. 274-624 1.99 



Sound Effects Chip 



I 49 




i»rr 



28-Pin DIP 



SN76477. Music, explosions, phas- 
ers, gunshots and more — almost 
any sound imaginable! Line-level 
output. 6-15VDC. With data. 
276-1785 4.49 



16K Dynamic RAM 



New! 



13 



Each 



16,384 x 1 bits in a 16-pin DIP. Ac- 
cess time: 250 nanoseconds. Re- 
fresh: 1 millisecond. Requires +5, 
+ 12, and - 5VDC. TTL compati- 
ble. 276-2505 13.95 



Opto Devices 



■J 



Low As 

89* 



S Emitter/Detector Pair. LED 
infrared source. Sensitive photo- 
transistor detector. 

276-142 1.99 

E Phototranslstor. Sensitive, fast 
response silicon. 276-130 . . . .B9e 




Cases and Cabinet 
Save "<? 33% 



i. 



E Deluxe "Wood Look" Cabinet. Metal, slide-off cover, rubber feet 

23<oi4V«5 Vs." 270-262 (Reg, 5.95) Sale 3.9S 

1! Readout. Holds tour 0.6 - or eight 0.3" readouts. Removable bracket. 

1 '^iol3 7 4!K<t 7 A: 270-285 (Reg, 3.95) Sals 2.95 

El Clock. ForMA-1003car clock. Blue lens. Accepts 3 switches (not 
inel.). Bracket 3Vw2Hh2: 270-303 [Reg. 5.95) Sale 3.95 





High Efficiency 



Back In Stock! 0.45V at 
1 Amp in full sunlight. 
276-123 9.90 



Mini Lamps 
New! 



Only 

I Enlarged QQp 
1 10 show ^ ^ ** 

| deEail 

Pkg. of 6 



Long life red incan- 
descent for models, 
charts, dial lights, 
more. 6V, 60 mA. 
272-1144 6/99* 



Yellow 0.3" 
LED Readout 

New! 

-199 

Pkg. of 2 



^ 



Right hand decimal. 3.0V/ 
segment (S 20 mA. Com- 
mon cathode. 
276-067 Pair/1.99 



TV RF Modulator Board 



Save 

29% 




Reg. 16.95 

1195 



Etched, drilled & labeled PC board with ore- 
wired RF module and back-of-sel ant. 
switch. Ch. 3 or 4 out. Produces color or 
b&w video, 30-15,000 Hz hi-fi sound. With 
instructions. Parts extra. 
277-122 Sate 11.95 



16-Pin DIP Jumper 
Cable 




Two 16-pin DIP plugs connected by an 
18" color-indexed ribbon cable. Simpli- 
fies linking up digital circuits. 
276-1976 3.99 




AC Cooling Fan 

Quiet, Efficient 



14 



95 



Regulated 12VDC Supply 

2995 



Ideal for cooling hi-fi and ham 
equipment, power supplies, com- 
puters. 70 CFM. For 120VAC. Just 
4.63x4.63x2.47" overall. 
273-241 14.95 




Circuit 

Breaker 

Protected 



rowers CBs, ham rigs, auto-sound equip- 
ment and more Irom 120 VAC. 2,5 A continu- 
ous. 5A surge. 2Vi ! x4Vte63'4: U.L listed. 
22-124 29.95 



m 



m 

m 
31 

-A 

to 
OS 

o 
109 



Prices may vary at individual stores and dealers 



NEW 1981 Catalog Available Now! Come in 
for Your FREE Copy! (None Sent by Mail). 



Radio /hack 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION • FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102 
OVER 7000 LOCATIONS IN 40 COUNTHIES 



CIRCLE 61 OH FREE INFORMATION CARD 



PLANS & KITS 



PRINTED circuit boards from sketch or artwork. 
Kit projects. Free details. DANOCINTHS INC., 
Box 261, Westland, Ml 4S185 

SPEAKERS, Save 50%. Build your own speaker 
system. "Free catalog" write: MC GEE RADIO, 
RE 1901, McGoa Street. Kansas City, MO 64108 

PROJECTION TV . . . Convert your TV to project 
7 foot picture. Results equal to $2,500 projector. 
Total cost less than $20.00. Plans & lens $16.00. 
Illustrated Information free. MACROCOMGA, 
Washington Crossing, PA 18977 

DIGITAL fuel gauge: 2Vi digit, 10 led scale. All 
parts, PCS layout, $24.00; Digital auto compass/ 
Plans $3.50 each, information 50 1. TS RE- 
SEARCH, 970 South Anaheim Blvd. Suite 113, 
Anaheim, CA 92805 



FREE KIT Catalog 



AUTORANGE 



TEST ,•- 
EXPERI" 



Write or Phone tor FREE CATALOG, 
Average ] minute Saturday call is 2l£-, 



nArC SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

UHAJC box IQS4R LIVERMQRE CA 94550 



DIGITAL multimeter kits handheld, best quality 
0.1% accuracy. The lowest price in America 
$67.50 write: E. G. TRONICS, 8254 Green leaf Cir- 
cle, Tampa FL 33615 

TELEVISION alignment — in minutes — while ob- 
serving revolutionary pattern on screen. Check 
RF, IF, video, instantly) So simple and inexpen- 
sive It's incredible. Complete plans — $6.00. Free 
details. JOHN KOZULKO, Box 2702R, Clearwat- 
er, FL 33517 

COMPUTER calculated earth station data. Pad 
center line $5.00. Antenna azmuth and elevation 
$3.00. Need site latitude, longitude and satellite 
of Interest. Free sample SASE. KEN'S CATV 
SERVICE, P.O. Box 54, Red Ash, VA 24640 



AUTHORIZ E D T RS- 80® DEALER A301 
COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 




Up to 

19% Ditcount 

on TRS-80's 

26-1051 4K LEVEL I UH.OO 

lb- 1056 1*K LEVEL II (71 5.00 

1-800-841-0860 toll RU 

MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. INC. 

Downlown Plato Shopping Comer 

115 C Second Ave.. S.W. 

Calm, Georgia 31729 

(912) 377-7120 Go. Phon* Mo, 



NEW plana. Telephone memory dialer, negative 
ion generator, burglar alarm, $3.00 each. Sub- 
scription television decoder, $10.00. Plans In- 
clude detailed instructions and circuit board pat- 
terns, COLLINS ELECTRONICS, Box 6424, San 
Bernardino. CA 92408. 

DECODE Morse and RTTY signals off the air with 
new Mofse-a-Word or RTTY reader. Morse key- 
board also available. Kits or factory wired. Send 
for details. HICROCRAFT, Box 513R, Thiensville, 
Wl 53092(414)241-8144. 

MEASURE microfarads, megohms, moonlight, 
minutes, motion, more with your constant-add 
calculator and our $14.62 module. Easy "one- 
evening" projects. Applications manual $1.00 (re- 
fundable) and large SASE. KALTEK, Box 7462- 
RE, Rochester, NY 14615 

SAVE 90%. Build your own minicomputer. Free 
details. DIGITRONICS CORPORATION, 2723E 
W. Butler Dr., Phoenix, A2 85021 

SUBSCRIPTION TV decoder circuits. Detailed 
plans $4.60, JOE PO Box 61, Cumberland, Rl 
02864 



BUILD later using laser diode 1-1200 watts. 
Plans $4.00. LASERTRONIGS (1) 12320 Spring, 
Portland, Oregon 97225 

ELECTRONIC car horn which toots your favorite 
tune at 15 watts complete with speaker $69.95 
guaranteed, easy Installation. Free details. Kit 
with simple Instructions $24.95, name your tune. 
JHC ELECTRONICS, P.O. Box 1158, Lando- 
lakes, FL 33539 



LOGIC LAB 

TTL CMOS linear breadboards, (unction genera- 
tor, six supplies, Indicators, switches $99.95. 
CASCADE LABS, 5637 Bayview Avenue, Rich- 
mond, CA 94804 



HIGHLY 
PROFITABLE 



ELECTRONIC 



ONE-MAN 
FACTORY 



Investment unnecessary, knowledge not re- 
quired, sales handled by professionals. Ideal 
home business. Write today for facts' 
Postcard will do. Barta-RE-G, Box 248, 
Walnut Creek, CA 94597. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

MECHANICALLY inclined individuals desiring 
ownership of Small Electronics Manufacturing 
Business — without investment . W rite: B U S IN E S S - 
ES, 92-R, Brighton 1 1th, Brooklyn, NY 1 1235 

GOLD . . . from electronics. Jewelry, scrap. 
Guaranteed Industry procedures, trade secrets, 
$5.95 (Texas + 30 1). AUROTECH, MS 106, 2806 
Geraghty, Austin, TX 78757 

PROJECTION TV Make S200.0O+ per eve- 

ning assembling projectors . . . Easy . . . Re- 
sults equal to $2,500 projectors . . . Your total 
cost less than $15.00 . . . Plans, lens & dealer's 
information $14.00 . . . Illustrated information 
free . . . MACROCOMGAX, Washington Cross- 
ing, PA 18977 



BILLET ELECTfteilCS 



1 4!©i!244!e 
TDC75040 



o 
o 

IT 

r- 
O 

LU 



o 

Q 
2 



NPN HIGH VOLTAGE 1.59 

VCEO = 450 VDC IC - 3A (5A Peak) 
FOR TV HORIZONTAL SECTIONS; HIGH 
VOLTAGE REGULATORS 
REPLACES: 2N5076. 2N5077, 2N5S36, 2N5865. 
BDYM, BU128, 2SG2121, 2N5B40. 2SC1046, 
2NS46S. TIP556 AND MANY" OTHERS. 



[HOUSE * 



LM3046 (CA304S) Transistor Array .75 

RCA404M 400V6ATRIACTO-66 75 

CA30SG RCA Transistor Array so 

LMS87 Tone Decooer , ■»» 

CD4M8 PLL CMOS , 99 

LMS302 Quad Comparator .89 

2SC1S49 HlghFreq NPN TO-92 6/1.00 

MPS AM NPN GEN PUR 8/1.00 

Sound Effects Kit $18.50 

Th*3E-0i 11 1 mnplvt* hi* (hit 
contain alt ih? porta to build I 
Ewogrammabla *OvrirJ «11«clt 
gwwnlar Dnlgned wpyfid 
in* now T«ck 1n»tnum»nti 
SH7E47T Sound Chi,), the 
■ i i * i i f-f*~ * at ooaf d provide* banks 01 MINI 

"■***■ -Jf i i" | _djr j ■- D,p lwl1chH ind pot* l0 

t'-^U^l pfOflfJJlll ihfl *ar.Q-j3 com- 

E^^^fLfiV ^*J^ jMnBiiftniClinflSH-fOmliitor. 

f%: \ . jjj , vCO. Noi». On* Sn&H, *fl<J 

T jL7rl"r. * ^^ - -c^- E-nvakje* Contrail AOuKJOp 

^m I * ■■MS i Amp IC '■ uiPC" to :mplorTHjnr 

Hi AdfUiL»hl# Puli« Q«**»w»- 
[ "ta— T I T lor Lrvd Comparmlor and 

*GE*k£± MuUipl»T Oiciilaiar 1w nrfi-n 

ntHt «nrttilf1r. Th* 3'*" a 5" 
b VF*M PCBojrd HHLirfS a prototype 
ami 10 ilkm fo* wmt addad 
ci-tuinv Emly DragrtprtfTwd' 
lo dupHtat* EapJet.ana, 
PtMM* Cufll. Slaam Trpini. 01 
almaal in mhflil* numtw on* 
pOttf found*. Th* umi t\ai a 
friull'P^ el appjicjli&ni Th* 
low pfKH include* a L l parti, 
isnm&iy manual, prvjram nurvg charli and un*i|«" 75477 chip iptei- 
■i-calicvna. l| ium cniflV till try tro>. includad]. On board 1DC+JW a-np 
will drivB a imili io«a>.*r diraciry or 1ti» uniL can b» Conntcte^ 10 yaut 
»1*roowilft mcr-jdiWa ra«Lrl!ti [Speaker not included) 

■■ TM7T CHIP IS INCLUDED, EXTRA. CHIPS *3k,1fl EACH 



*• . ■ 1 



AVS-8910 PROGRAMMABLE SOUND GENERATOR 
Trie AV3-391Q is a 40 pin LSI chip with three osciHators, 
three amplitude controls, programmable noise generator, 
three mixers, an envelope generator, and Ihree D/A 
converters that are controlled by 8 BIT WORDS No 
external pots or caps required. This chip hooked to an € 
bit microprocessor chip or Buss {5080. Z30, $600 etc.) can 
be software controlled to produce almost any sound- it 
wilt play three note chords, make hangs, whistles, sirens, 
gunshots, explosions, bleets, whines, or grunts, in 
Addition, it has provisions to control its own memory 
chips with two 10 ports, The chip requires +5V @ 75ma 
and a standard TTL clock oscillator. A truly incredible 
circuit 

$14.95 W/ Basic Spec Sheet (4 pages) 
60 page manual with S-100 interface instructions and 
several programming examples, $3.00 ex Ira. 



1/2W RESISTOR ASSORTMENT 

A good miK o15S*nd 10* vaUm in oolh full lead and PC loud drnjcea A1I 
nw* Urst qualily 

(Asi1 | 2QG pJCMJ "£W 



7 WATT AUDIO AMP KIT 

SUAUL SINGLE HYBRID IC AND COMPONENTS FIT ON A i t. 1 ■ PC 

aoAKDiiHCiuoeo] h-uhscn 1 a voc great for ahv project that 

NEEDS AN INEXPENSIVE AM? LESS THAN » t+HD 9 3 WATTS 
COMPATtaLE WITH 5E-0I SOUND KIT UM 



ULTRASONIC RELAY KIT 
INVISIBLE BEAM WORKS LIKE A PHOTO ELECTRIC 
EYE, USE UP TO 25 FT, APART. COMPLETE KIT. ALL 
PARTS a PC BOARDS. $21.50 



THE PERFECT TRANSFORMER 
117VAC primary. 12VAC secondary @ 200ma 
Great for all you CMOS, or low power TTL 
projects, PC board mount 996 ea, 3/$2.50 
Size; 1.5" W x 1,25" Ox 1-25" H 



XAN SUPER DIGITS 



.6" JUMBO LED 

«BH> COMMON CATHODE 
S6+D COMMON ANO0E 



.99 



RED 

7 SEGMENT 



NOW k SUPER READOUT AT A SUPER HUVI Thm urn ttaarf )wfl 
prima LED readouts, not aocono 1 * or TOJaott at asld by OLhan Com pare our 
pr Ic* And und lor youra today, but hurry, the supply II limited" 
1PECIFY- COMMON ANODE OR COUMON CATHODE 



H£^^ 



MUSIC FOR YOUR EARS 



BurfoVs Electronic Muik Mfektr" Kit riai a single 3S Pin 
Mlcroprocnaor Chip wllh ROM thai has been 

program me<i to play the I-tsi 6 to 10 notes ol (he 25 popular 
tun« listed below. Each (une can cosily be addressed 
Individually or played sequanelally a.t Eh&pu&h ol s button. 
The 3 chime sequences are activated at any tima by 
saparato switch closures so when used as a doorbell, one 
door can play songs white two others will pl«y different 
chimes. The unit has a 5 watt audio Amp and will run on 
slth*r 12 VAC of 12VDC. Optional 117VAC irarnformcr is 
available. Construe) ion is very si m pic. works with any B or 
16 ohm speaker, or horn speaker. (Mot included > Tunes 
can be remotely programmed using asinyJeroinryswHch, 
(not included}, if desired. 

Complete Kit S18.95 Tranalmmer $1.35 

(For operation on 1 1 TV AC, 



Tun**- Tmipaat ' WHLirn T*B * H rilM,|*n Clmiu*- Ibf S P *i>f ltd B»nn»r 

■ VMiktM QMd4< AMMtea, Amwiti ■ DmiIM7Mh>4 L*W' *t«i*»fl «*f ch 

■ a*f4hotr*n'»SE|>iandtai* HMTiBtti- (.iV**flEnflC** 'SlvWunThirTH 
* C1»m*n(lnti ' Au l^ibMithi * JHigl* B«lli ' GiMllBVf Tin) Ou«*n ' Co-ten*l 
B*$*y ' U«r»«aitlrM ' 0'SrM*H,lo' IfeAlaLUtH ' TIM Erm ■" Hut D*rvub»* 
BrahRH Lullaby ■ WMknMllM' Cnim* ■ S-mpU Chhn* " 0*K*ni^a 

PARTS 

Tl»«l Bar/Graph Driver 230 1 

reof, 5V lARaaulator .99 

7«MuS 'iA TO-5 Hag. 5V IHsc. «) .60 

LM3911 Temp. Trsneducur 1.10 

555 TlmerlC « 

7M VoltBO* RiB. U Pm Dip JO | 

7»12 lAtSVReg 

2N50H P.UT W/Spacs 

IH Opto tsolttor W/Sp«5 



NOCO D.'s 

SEND CHECK MO OR CHARGE CARD NO 
PHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED ON 
VISA AND MASTERCHARGE ONLY 

(214) 278-3553 

i ADD S% FOR SHIPPING 
. TX RES ADD S% STATE SALES TAX 
- FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 10% (EXCEPT CANADA) 
(20% AIRMAIL) U S FUNDS ONLY 

cata(*f fee <** te^tUit 



110 



HIP DIGI-KE y 

J ' ' CORPORATION 



CORPORA 17 ON 

Quality Electronic Components 



TOLL 



|MN., AK., HI. gfSlPEMTSl 



2IB-68T-6674 



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DISCOUNTS WHfN COMPARING PRICES 



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TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 

I.C. SOCKETS 



TIME TEMPERATURE 
PROGRAMMABLE MODULE 



INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



PANASONIC ftFCTPOLTtlC CAPACITOK 




THE "PROGRAMMABLE' 
CLOCK MODULES 



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MOLE* I.C SOlKt T PINS 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS GOLD 
EESGEBOARO CONNECTORS 



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DiG/KEV 

CORPORATION 

' iim lit » Electronic Components 

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CIRCLE 35 OH FREE INFORMATION CARD 



111 



6 

Q 

112 



100 W CLASS A 
POWER AMP KIT 

Dynamic Bias Class "A" circuit design makes this 
unit unique in its class. Crystal clear, 1D0 watts 
power output will satisfy the most picky fans. A per- 
fect combination with Ihe TA-1020 low T.I.M. ste- 
reo pre-amp. 
Specifications: 

■ Output power: 100W RMS into B-ohm 

125WRMS into4-ohm 

■ Frequency response: 10Hz - 100 KHz 
• T.H.D.: less than 0.008% 

■ S/N ratio: better than 80dB 

■ Input sensitivity: IV max. 

- Power supply: ±40V@ 5 amp 

TA-1000 KIT 

S51.95 

Power 

transformer 

119X0 Net 




PROFESSIONAL 

10 OCTAVE STEREO 

GRAPHIC EQUALIZER!! 




Graphic equalizer have been used for years in sound 
studios and concert arenas but were too expensive 
to be considered tor home use. Now we offer you the 

facility at an affordable price. This unit can extend 
your control of your Hi-Fi system by minimizing the 
non-tinearifies ol the combined speaker/ room sys- 
tem. Fantastic features as follows: 

• 10 double slide controls for two channels 

• Cut out rumble, surface noise and hiss 

• Minimizes speaker/room non-linearities 

• Frequency response from 30Hz to16KHz 

• 10 tone controls plus defeat, monitor and lape 
selector. 

• Control range ± 12dB In 10 octaves (30Hz, 60Hz. 
120Hz, 240Hz. 500Hz: 1 KHz, 2KHz, 4KHz, 8KHz, 
16KHZ.) 

< Operating voltage 1 17V 50/60Hz. 

FACTORY ASSEMBLED UNIT. NOT A KIT 
SPECIAL PRICE SUT.OOea 



SUB MINI SIZE FET 
CONDENSER MICROPHONE 

IV Specification: 

\\ Sensitivity: — 65dB ± 3db 

\\ FEQ. Response: 50 Hz 8 KHz 

^|^ ^^^ Output Impedance: 1K ohm max. 

^%-^^h Polar Pattern Dmni-direclional 

B Power Supply: 1.5V 10V DC 

^» Sound Pressure Level: Max. 120dB 
EM4RPS2.50ea. or 2 for $4.50 



NEW MARK III 

9 Steps 4 Colors 

LED VU 

Stereo level indicator kit with arc-shape display 
panel!!! This Mark III LED level indicator is a new 
design PC board with an arc-shape 4 colors LED dis- 
play (change color from red, yellow, green and the 
peak output indicated by rose). The power range is 
very large, from -30dB to +5dS. The Mark III In- 
dicator is applicable to 1 watt - 200 watts amplifier 
operating voltage is 3V - 9V DC at max 400 MA. The 
circuit uses 10 LEDs per channel. It Is very easy to 
connect to the amplifier. Just hook up with the 
speaker output! 

IN KIT FORM $18.50 



SOUND ACTIVATED 
DISCO LIGHT KIT 

Latest design electronic color light organ, with both 
sound and line input, the three color lights (not in- 
cluded) will change colors with the rhythm of the 
music: controlled by 3 ranges, low, middle and high. 
Ideal for party, bar. or home entertainment. Max, con- 
trolled output 1000 watts per color (3 colors). 
Kit includes aluminum cabinet all electronic parts. 
P,C. bnard_ and transformer. 

(Color Organ) 
$45.50 per kit 



TY-23 



MARK IV 15 STEPS 

LED POWER LEVEL 

INDICATOR KIT 

This new stereo level indicator kit consists ol 36 4- 
color LEO (IS per channel) to indicate the sound 
level output of your amplifier from -36dB — |-3dB. 
Comes with a well-designed silk screen printed plas- 
tic panel and has a selector switch to allow floating 
or gradual output indicating. Power supply Is 6~ 
12V D.C. with THG on board input sensitivity con- 
trols. This unit can work with any amplifier from 1W 
to 200W! 

Kit Includes 70 pes. driver transistors. 38 pes. 
matched 4-color LED. all other electronic cornpon- 
cnls, PC board and front panel. 



WBL 



MARK IV KIT $31.50 



30W 30W STEREO 

HYBRID AMPLIFIER KIT 

It works in T2V DC as well! Kit includes 1 PC SANYO 
STK-043 stereo power amp. IC LM 1458 as pre amp, 
all other electronic parts. PC Board, all control 
pots and special heat 
sink for hybrid. Power 
transformer not in- 
cluded. II produces ultra 
hi-fi output up to 60 
watts (30 watts per 
channel) yet gives out 
less than 0.1% total har- 
monic distortipn between 
lOOMz and iQKHz. 




S32-50 PER KIT 



BATTERY POWERED 
FLUORESCENT LANTERN 

MODEL 888 R FEATURES 

3" Circuitry: designed for operation by high 
efficient, high power silicon transistor 
which enable illumination maintain in a 
standard level even the battery supply 
drops to a certain low voltage. 
- 9" 6W coot /daylight miniature fluores- 
cent tube. 
• 8 x 1.5V IJM-1 (size D) dry cell battery. 
- Easy sliding door tor changing batteries. 
, 1(1 „ P , - Stainless retlector wilh wide angle in- 
tiu.au tfl ceasing luminalion ot the lantern. 



STEREO 



AMPLIFIER 



fllk 




SOW 



60 W 



COMPLETED UNIT - NOT A KIT! 

OCL pre amp. & power s'ereo amp. with bass, mid- 
dle, Irebie 8-way lone control. Fully assembled and 
tested, ready to work. Total harmonic distortion less 
than 0.5% at full power. Output maximum is 60 
watts per channel at Bit. Power supply is 24 ■ 36V 
AC or DC. Complete unit. Assembled $43.50 ea 
Power transformer S 8.50 ea 



5W AUDIO AMP KIT 

O 2 LM 380 with Volume Control 
111111)7 PowerSuply6 18V DC 
ONLY 55.00 EACH 




Tvoe MU-52E 



PROFESSIONAL 
PANEL METERS 

A. 0-50UA 8.50 ea. 

B. 0-30VDC 8.50 ea. 

C. 0-50VDC 8.50 ea. 

D. 0-3AOC 9.00 ea. 

E. O-1O0VDC 9.00 ea. 
All meters white lace with black 
scales Plastic cover. 



DIGITAL AUTO 
SECURITY SYSTEM 

4 DIGITS 
PERSONAL C00E11 

SPECIAL $19,95 

• proxlmily triggered 

■ voltage triggered 

■ mechanically triggered 
This alarm protects you and itself! Entering pro- 
tected area will set It off, sounding your car horn 
or siren you add. Any change In voltage will also 
trigger the alarm into action. If cables within pas- 
senger compartment are cut. Ihe unit protects ilsell 
by sounding the alarm. 3-WAY PROTECTION! 

All units Factory assembled and tested — Not a kit' 




A NEW LED ARRAY AND 

DRIVER FOR 

LEVEL METERS 

This series covers a wide range ol level indication 
uses, output and input voltage, time related change, 
temperature, light measurement and sound level. The 
problem of uneven brilliance often encountered with 
LED arrangements as well as design problems caused 
by using several units of varying size are substan- 
tially reduced 12 LEDs in one bar 
LEO ARRAY 
GL-112R3Red. Hed.Red $5.50 

GL-1 12N3 Green, Yellow, Red $6.50 
GL-112M2 Green. Green, Red $6,50 
GL-112G3 Green, Green, Green $6.50 



2 29 

LED DRIVERS 

1R 2406G is an I.C. specially designed to drive. 12 
LED. The number ol LEO is lineally Illuminated ac- 
cording to the control voltage Input terminal 21. 
Operating voltage is 9 12V D.C. s.5.35 EACH 
DUEL CHANNEL VU METER 
P.C. BOARD AVAILABLE AT $4.50 EA. 



PROFESSIONAL FM 
WIRELESS MICROPHONE 

TECT model WEM-16 is a factory assembled FM wire- 
less microphone powered by an AA size battery. 
Transmits In the range of 88-108MHZ wilh 3 transis- 
tor circuits and an omnl-directionat electric conden- 
ser. Element built-in plastic tube type case: mike Is 
6Vi" long. With a standard FM radio, can be heard 
anywhere on a one-acre lot: sound quality was 
judged very gpod. 

$16.50 



FLASHER LED 

Unique design combines a Jumbo red LED with an IC 
flasher chip In one package. Operates directly from 
5V-7V DC. No dropping resistor neded. Pulse rale 
3Hz @ 5V 20mA, fji^l. 

2 for $2 .20 ' J~* } 

BIPOLAR LED RED/GREEN 

2 colors in one LED, green and red, changes color 
when reverse voltage Supply. Amazing! 
Z FOR $1.60 



LCD CLOCK MODULE! 

- 0.5" LCD 4 digits display ■ X'tal controlled cir- 
cuits ■ D.C. powered (1.5V battery) ■ 12 hr. or 24 hr. 

display • 24 hr, alarm set ■ 60 mm. countdown timer 
■ On board dual back-up^ lights ■ Dual time zone dis- 
play ■ Slop watch function. 

N1C1200 112 hr) $24.50 EA. 
NIC2400(24br)S26.50EA 



******** ******* 

uK! o.s" led bail 

ALARM CLOCK MODULE 

ASSEMBLED! NOT A KIT! 
Features * 4 digits 0.5" LEO Displays * 12 hours I 
teal time formal * 24 hours alarm audio oulpul | 
• 59 mm countdown timer * 10 min. snooze control 
ONLY S7.00 EACH 
SPECIAL TRANSFORMER 
FDR CLOCK 
(FREE) 



CIRCLE 5 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



WANT TO BUILD YOUR 

OWN BLACK MAGIC BOX 

ON TOP OF THE TV FOR 

FIRST RUN MOVIES? 



We have ail Ihe parts including hard to lind 

UHF varlactor tuners and P.C, board. 

Call us lor more Infnrmatlon. 



FLUORESCENT LIGHT 
DRIVER KIT 

12V DC POWERED 
Lights up 8 -~15 Watt Fluo- 
rescent Light Tubes. Ideal 
tor camper, outdoor, auto Of 
boat. Kit includes high volt- 
age coil, power transistor, 
heat sink, all oilier electro- 
With Case Only nic parts and PC Board, light 
$6.50 Per Kit lube not included! 




SUPER FM WIRELESS 

MIC KIT — MARK III 

This new designed circuit uses high 
FEQ. FET transistors with 2 stages 
pre amp. Transmits FM Range (88- 
120 MHz) up lo 2 blocks away and 
with the ultra sensitive condenser 
microphone that comes with I he kit, 
allows you lo pick up any sound 
within 15 ft. away! Kit includes all 
FMC-105 electronic parts. OSC coils, and PC 
£11.50 PER KIT Board. Power supply 9V D.C. 




PRESS-A-LIGHT SELF 
GENERATED FLASHLIGHT 

EXCLUSIVE! I S3.95 ea Never worry about battery, 
^ % Model F-17 because it has none! Easy 
to carry in pocket and handy 
to use. Ideal tor emergency 
light. It generates its own 
electricity by squeezing grip 
lever. Put one in your car, 
boat, camper or home. You 
may need it some time! 



'<u- 



ELECTRONIC DUAL 
SPEAKER PROTECTOR 

Cut off when circuit is shorted 
or over load to protect your 
amplifier as well as your 
speakers. A must for OCL 
circuits. 

KIT FOAM 
SB.75 EA. 




'FISHER" 30 WATT 
STEREO AMP 






Super Buy 
Only S18.50 



MAIN AMP [15WX2J 
Kit includes 2 pes. Fisher PA 
301 Hybrid IC all electronic parts 
with PC Board. Power supply ± 
16V DC (not included!. Power 
band with (KF1% ±3dB). Volt- 
age gain 33dB. 20Hz - 20KHz. 



UNIVERSAL 
PROJECT BOARD 

All P.O. boards are made tram high quality phenolic, 
predrllled in dilferent patterns for different purpose. 
All boards t/16" single sided copper. Hole spacing is 
standard 0.1". Fits all kinds of l,C, transistors, capa- 
citors and resistors Idea !rr si h;:ol projects. engineeT- 
mg designs and protot yping. 

r 

BEL-OOB 




BEL101 



BEL202 



BEL101 


3Vi"i6" 


I1.7S EA 


SB072 


3V, "xr 


51.75 EA 


M-34 


3"i5" 


S1.TS EA 


CIRCUIT FIT 


3"x3tt" 


SI .15 EA 


BE LJ02 


3"*4" 


SI. 15 EA 


BEL-OOB 


IWiSli" 


51.15 EA 



PUSH-BUTTON SWITCH 

N/Open Contact 
v^ Color: Red, White, Blue, Green. Black 
'k- 3/S1.00 

,^ N/Close also Available 

^P^ 50t each 

LARGE QTY. AVAILABLE 




HEAVY DUTY 
,*» CLIP LEADS 

* 10 pairs — 5 colors Alligator clips on a 
22" long lead. Ideal for any testing. 
S2.2Q7pack 



BATTERIES 

PkVJIO.OO f~~ -y— ___^ NICKEL CADMIUM 
ZPKS/S19.00 L^ f " — -^ BATTERY 

'M PACK 




'D' SIZE 



ILLUSTRATED 

LESS COVER 

Oitpil: 3.6 Voltt @ 3,0 Asvjt/HDiir. Consists of three each 
1 2 Vol I "D" size Nickel Cadmium Cells stacker! anO plastic 
Mm encapsulated Tabs are provided al each end for dec 
irical connections The individual calls can be cut apart M 
desired P-aftd rschacae rate is 30 mA. H-1B hours Size 
v\" dra ir 7" loud New shog wi eacn pack. 1 Id. 



"ft" 



*$STft 



SIZE BATTERY PACK 

10 C size ni-cd baltery in dng pack. 
gives out 12.5V D.C. 1.B amp per 
hour. All Iresh code, pull-out Irom 
movie cameras. Can be disconnec- 
i«fd lo use as single c cells. Hard 
'to find!15.0D oer pack ol 10 batteries 



ELECTRONIC ALARM SIREN 

COMPLETE UNIT 
ideal for use as an Alarm Unit 
or hookup to your car back-up to 
make a reverse indicator. Light 
Output up to 130dB. Voltage sup- 
AU-999 S7.50 ply 6 12V 



± 



SUB MINIATURE 
TOGGLE SWITCH 

SPST2 FDR 2.80 SPDT2 FOR 3.20 

6 AMP 125V AC CONTACT 



>^V TRANSFORMERS 



X 



ALL 117 VOLT INPUT 



JOV 
36V CT 
4BVCT 
24V CT 

IBVCT 
12V CT 
6.3V 



4 AMP 
3 AMP 
3 AMP 

0.5 AMP 
0.5 AMP 
0.5 AMP 

0.5 AMP 



SB. 50 EA 
$10.50 EA 

$10.50 EA. 
S3.00 EA. 

S3. 00 EA. 
(2. SB EA. 
52.00 EA. 



AC POWER SUPPLY 

Wall Type Transformer 
12V AC Output 200 MA $2.75 EA. 

16VCTAC Output fOOMA $2.10 EA. 

6VDC Output 120 MA $1.90 EA. 

12V DC Output 100 MA $1.90 EA, 



4 

■T 



ULTRASONIC 
SWITCH KIT 



Kit includes the Ultra Sonic Transducers, 2 PC Boards 
tor transmitter and receiver. All electronic parts and 
instructions. Easy lo build and a lot ol uses such as 
remote control for TV. garage door, alarm system or 
counter. Unit operates by 9-12 DC. $15.50 



REGULATED DUAL 
VOLTAGE SUPPLY KIT 

-' 4 30V DC BOO MA adjustable, fully regulated 
by Far i child 78 MG and 79MG voltage regulator I.C. 
Kit includes all electro- 
nic parts. Niter capaci- 
tors, I.e., heat sinks 
and P.O. board. 
$12.50 PEB KIT 



AA SIZE Nl-CD specialsale 

RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 

LIMITED QUANTITY AVAILABLE 



POCKET SIZE 

AM-FM RADIO 

TR-945 with 

LED TUNING EYE 



New design body with see 

thru speaker grill. 

SPECIAL PRICE $16.50 EACH 




TR-945 



POWER SUPPLY KIT 



0-30V D.C. REGULATED 
Uses UA723 and ZN3055 Power 
TR output can be adjusted from 
0-30V, 2 AMP. Complete with PC 
board and all electronic parts. 
Transformer for Power Supply, 
2 AMP 24V x 2 58.50 



$m 



0-30 Power Supply 
$10.50 each 



l.C. TEST CLIPS 

Same as the E-Z clips 
With 20" Long Leads 
In Black and Red Colors per pair 



$2.75 



SOUND GENERATOR l.C. 

Creates almost any type of sound — gun shot, ex- 
plosion, train, car crash, star war. birds, organ ex I. 
A built-in audio amplilier provides high level output. 
Operates from one W battery. 28 pin 
dip; we supply the datas. $1.90 EACH 



ELECTRONIC SWITCH KIT 



CONDENSER TYPE 

Touch On Touch Off 

uses 7473 l.C. and 

12V relay 

$5.50 each 




1 WATT AUDIO AMP, 



COMPLETE TIME MODULE 

0.3" digits LCD Clock Module with month 

and date. hour, minute and seconds. As 

well as stop watch function!! Battery 

and back up light is with the module 

Size of (he module is 1 " dia. Ideal for 

use in auto panel, computer, instrument 

and many others! SB.S5 EACH 




SOUND ACTIVATED SWITCH 

All parts completed on a PC Board 
SCR will turn on relay, buzzer or 
trigger other circuit tor 2 - 10 sec. 
(adjustable). Ideal for use as door 
alarm, sound controlled toys and 
many other projects. Supply voltage 
$1.75 ei. 4.5V 9V D.C. 2 tor $3.00 



S 



FM WIRELESS MIC KIT 

It is not a pack of cigarettes. It Is a 
new FM wireless mic kill New de- 
sign PC board tits Into a plastic 
cigarette box (case Included). Uses 
a condensor microphone to allow you 
to have a better response in sound 
oick-up. Transmits up to 350 ft.l 
With an LED indicator to signal the 
unit Is on ^FMM2 KIT FORM S7.9S, 




All parts are ore-assembled on a 

mini PC Board. Supply Voltage 6 

9V D.C. SPECIAL PRICE $1 .95 ea. 



r 
i 



&■ 



LOW TIM DC STEREO 
PRE-AMP KIT TA-10 20 

Incorporates brand-new D.C. design that gives a 
frequency response from OHz - IDOKHz ±0,5dB! 
Added features like tone defeat and loudness control 
let you tailor your own frequency supplies to eli- 
minate power lloctuation! 

Specifications: * T.H.D. less than .005% ■ T.I.M. 
less than .005% ■ Freguency response: DC to 100KHz 
±0.5dB • R1AA deviation: =0.2dB • S/N ratio: bet- 
ter than 70dB ■ Sensitivity: Phono 2MV 47K/Aux. 
1O0MV 100K • Outpul level: 1.3V ■ Max, output: 15V 
• Tone control: bass :M0dB @ 50Hz/ treble ±10dB 
@ 15Hz ■ Power supply: ±24E.C. @ 0.5A 
Kit comes with regulated power supply all you need 
is a 48V CT. transformer @ 0."" 
ONLY $44.50 
X'former 
$4.50 ei. 




SOLID STATE 
ELECTRONIC BUZZER 

Mini slie 1"xV." xW 

Supply voltage 1.5V -12V 

Ideal for Alarm or Tone Indicator 



A% FORMULA INTERNATIONAL INC. 

5= nj I 1 — SMiMiHii A ' WB MAhBL l twi tnA*ttt 1 Send I 

w Z*ii ii.^ i i.^.. « trt Aft m„rtMi rivmr IIA OS buRAlli •— a-a _ . 



%* 



dit.cipia/nji 



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.iTnlSirn Ord.- tie.SOJCiM. II.: 

ahon. O'den Aec.p1 id on V,u 






Onr Hajj OUf.h». 



1.0D 
For Ovtaitad 
catalogue 



m 

TJ 

-I 

m 

2 

CD 



CIRCLE 6 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



113 



A A I^Ai^ 


V 


MfiRT 


\ 552 Summit five. / 

\Westfiekj, NJ. 07090/ 

\ (201 ) 654-o008 / 


1 V1HHI 


OXO 


MOTION DETECTOR: Features include transpar- 
ent, optical IC completely assembled or circuit 
board with necessary capacitors. Extensive specs 

and application notes included/ $5. 00 


SUBSCRIPTION TV EDUCATION*! KfT 

N thwa'i a TV ehaanal in you- area irthdv you can'l lw» to and «1 
a pn>E4f ptcture or somtf, ihmcti « you'ra i*atfj a Hitrtcnp- 
lionTYsa^Iil How y«» can find Iht Ifnil Ow 24?a(* ilMriltC 
manual contakn ■ d«tcnption of how nich a iyi»m worm and 
hewn cwnfevcticn ortatta far eukhnt J circuit to r«tnrfl Iht 
Md« and yd« l^nars 10 Iht* orcnuj s!al« Cv ki3 n porw to 
wSfh in many areas ol tha U.S. but Jmi f equJO Iru el 1 aeooe and 
u net inlmdw lor twffnwfs 


CRYSTALS-3.579W5 HHl m 
MUBUSi 


JUMBO LED's 

Green. 7/I.0O-Yeliow, 7/l.OO-Red. 10/1.00 

100/13.00 100/13.00 100/9.00 

MOUNTING CLIPS- 12/ 1.00 






■:.:T.;.:-f k : 69.CO 

FREQUENCY COUNTER CHIP 
ICM 7125 IPL 

(40 pin), with on beard dividers, 
decoders/drivers. 18.95-specs included 


7 SEG Displays (com p. grade) 
.3795t-.671.45 (specify ann. or calh.) 


AM/FM RADIO CHIP— (14408) 2.00 or 3/5.00 
Complete AM/FM IC -external IF required 


7ENER DIODES— 20V 1 amp 10/1.00 


DIPPED TANTALUMS 
.47 (if 35V (1" leads) 10/1.00 


TV SATELLITE TRANSISTOR 
MRF 901 (prime) $4.50 


SUPER SUB MINI LYTIC 5 

(l"rad, leads, by Nicbicon) 

lOOOdl 50V (TV L X %W, 7St or 10/6.00 

47 d 25V jy L X V." W). 10/J1.0O 

400(if 330V (photo llasti or laser circuit5>2/l .00 

COMPUTER GRADE TWIST LOCKS 

32O0)if 50V (ideal for power supplies) 2.00 

100CV 50V— 1.00 ICOOnf 185V— 2.00 


WEAR 

LU323K 5 00 LM13W 150 
UH3MH 75 LU1304 X 
LU301W .33 LH13M Hi 
IM307H .10 LM1307 JO 
LMM) .35 LMIMK K 
LM30SH 9S LU1310 i.?S 
UI303 .» LU1391 1.50 
U43I0 I.OS UH1414 2.H 
LM3I1H .BS LMlStt !.M 
LU3I/X 5.00 LMlUt M5 
UK3IBH l» LMlSa ITS 
LM&W-IF, 1.15 IU13TS 115 
LU320K-S2 1.15 LU 1830 1.50 
UU32I 1.25 LMlttl 1.71 
L«335 1.35 LHltUt 1.75 
W1»J 1.00 LU1S» 4S0 
IU310K-1I 1.35 LUZlIt 1.50 
W34IP-II 1.35 til 2113 I.7S 
UIJOH S.50 UlitW 3.10 
Lai 373 3.95 IUS17 1.35 
LH377 iOO LM304S 1.10 
LMJ80 1.15 LU3K4 150 
LM3SI 1.60 HI 3384 IOO 
UU3S4 1-65 IH3055 150 
LM3SS 1.50 LM3K7 3.50 
IM389 150 UI3O70 ISO 
LN390 1.95 LM307I 200 
LH74S 150 U1307S 175 
LM748CH 39 IM3U9 1.75 
UK 3900 .75 


DISCS— .001 1KV 25/1.00. .1 50V 15/1.00 
HEAT SENSITIVE SWITCH— 4/ 1.00 

self contained unit opens at 150 C 


9 DIGIT FLUORESCENT DISPLAY by NEC 

complete with driving circuitry-2.50 


EKTRA LOUD 9V BUZZER— 3/2 00 


WALL PLUG ADAPTER-5VLX Q 160ma-1.50 


6.3V 1.2 Amp Transformer— 1 .75 


MINI AUDIO TRANSFORMERS— 3/1 .00 


DIGITAL MOTION /UNIT COUNTER MODULE 

(Fairchild) with large 4 digit display & specs-7.00 
8035 Microprocessor, 17.00 


INTERFACE CHIP-06243 
16 line I/O extender for all slngfe chip ji Ps 5.75 


Terms MICRO-MART accepts Visa, MC, and telephone COD'S. Foreign orders $50.00 minimum plus 
shipping-US funds only. Orders under $10.00 include $2.00 for shipping/handling. All components 
guaranteed or money refunded. Immediate shipping, K.J. residents add 5* sales tax, 

MICRO-MART * 552 SUMMIT AVE..WESTFIELD, N.J. 07090 * (201)6544008 



I 



}\\ 



Electricity from the sun. 

5 Volt panel V* amp $50 2.5 Volt panel % amp $40 

GIANT 3V* Inch cell, delivers 1 amp $8.50 

Above cell with special motor & prop, runs In sun $10.25 

Computer video monitor chassis 9 inch, 12 volt used $40 
Computer video monitor chassis 12 inch, new $50 

Hy Gain CB chassis, trunk mount $9.00 




Govt surplus walky 
talky, used cond. 
47-55.4 mc range. 
Ant. $5 each extra. 
With data. 

$25 ea 2 for $45 

AN/PRC-6 



SEE IN THE 

DARKNESS 

IR viewer, portable, new with 

choice of one lens.. .close up, 

telephoto or gen, purpose. 

Requires 6 volt DC btry. $250 

Parallel ASCII-II Keyboard 

Unused $50.00 

Red LED's large 10/$ 1.00 

Shipping extra on all merchandise 

Meshna Inc., PO Box 62, E. Lynn, Mass. 01904 




CIRCLE 34 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



CIRCLE 22 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



HOME STUDY COURSE ON CASSETTE "±?°**l"f'r 




Eoch caurae tj«low iniludeia i 

>* 2 i hiBUrl l»1* itfCigr* ,% r u « p I i->e ■ y tsu't 
tar* b* played On arty ^fp n iJtirtl- c a««? 1 1* p la y-<-' 

SI- INTRODUCTION TO 
MICROPROCESSORS 

FarNofhSfXtcWists.Cours* contains: 
Detfnitions^Appiicatiorj^vmluatfon 
Tenm*SfStem Compon^nts*2,5fin. 



Qu'U t>Cak p\uh i*£> i tiii [■"»•-, 'or j lorat COuFMI -p> 

i*d 'o rKt pogti of ibt book o,ftd nmftlii) 



S2- PROGRAMMING 
MICROPROCESSORS 

For ttva studont who has comphtcd St 
GOAL' ^provide an ovar-attandpnciKsi 
understanding oi the concepts ot Micro- 
computer PiXtgramwingr 2.5 hoofs. 



$2995 



$2995 



■NO TECHNICAL BACKGROUND ASSUMED- 



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114 



POWER C0HTBCH.LER 

!«Jllrt-6s*itciwl 
EMI filtered tO"Kn 
Circuit BiMtefO™ 



CONCORD 



EPROM'S 

270B ss.?5 ' 

!H"$ 4 SONS 
JJ FOft $43 50 

2716 sib 9S 

15Kl2Kx9)4SQN& 
SFQfi S142.93 

2732 S49§5 

■32Ki4QQG*6) 



:ii.L :■ 
ML»] 
MLHo 

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MLMI 
MLllO 

ML 3^4 
MtUl 

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MtMI 

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MlSM 

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MLGII3 

ML1T22 
74Llt23 
HLSUt 
HLtlJI 
HLtlKI 
HL1H3 
MLSTB 



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MLULU H 

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M4.S27-B i& 

74.3IH IJM 

-HLUH 130 



■*LiJ*r 
Mt-San 

FtLlSH 

TtlLaTM 

t*iri»3*i 



1980 

Master 

* 47 95 



APPLE II Computer 
*ith full 48K of memory 1 



/, 




APPLE EXPANSION KIT 
16K MemorylUd-On, 

*4750 



Ml MOflT ADO - lIw 



no root* nravi 



Plotiglisscowfi 
as shown 

:4 « 



^*2^ 



RAM 




Fwir nunc OBA-Af-ow 



S'WO MEMORY BOARD 

16K 

STfiTIC 



M'CifiD IVHOm WOiHT 

**ft3 if f f noAicfl 

s -.w Kfl-v-ii SrJL«oA*w 
* HHZ OWJiAfPCW 



iTEJTED 



249°^ 



8212 

i/o port 



CiBh«iiCinpT%mM» 

V0tTAG£RECulAr0RS 



- Loeic 

3=<|PI0IE 



KIT 



*OftlTivC 

nOS'SV. MflilKV^ 
7*3**1'. HH.'ZWi 



8038C ^^ 



VCQ wavfliorrriCen 



TRS-80 

16 K Memory Addijri 

^rTf KIT 
WUh jumpers and 

Instructions 



com PUT £ ft 

componenn 

1971 SOUTH STATE COLLEGE ANAHEIM, CA. 92806 

check ciruio UWw/"UoJ( too »t m ion m 

IDC-OLI *• wnm ,tMo,„i: 0Mi,pr.oi ,11, nwouiM.% C« BIS SDC b 



CIRCLE 52 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



video 

ma 

'139 00 ^^ 

LwdoxCorp. 

72"SWC/C&tVH,r£ 

/-owcosrwoeo 
wo/v/rofl 






tAMSEY 
LECTRONIC'S 



PARTS WAREHOUSE 



PO BOX 10101 
Rochester, NY 14610 
716-381-7265 



We now have available a bunch of goodies too 
good to bypass Items are limited so order today 



MINI KITS - YOU HAVE SEEN THESE BEFORE NOW 

HERE ARE OLD FAVORITE AND NEW ONES TOO. 

GREAT FOR THAT AFTERNOON HOBBY. 



l/IIKE 






superhigh perform a nca FMwire- 
■M mike kit 1 Transmits a slable 
ignal up to 300 yards wilh exeep- 
onal audio quality by means of its 
ulll in eleciret mike Kit includes 
■sa. mike on-ofi swiich. antenna. 
aiiery and super insTfucSrons This 
. the finest unit available. 



M-3 Kit 

M-3 Wired and Tested 



£14.95 

19.95 



Color Org*n 

See music come 
alive! 3 different 
lights flicker with 
music, One light 
each Tor. high, 
mid- range and 
lows. Each indi- 
vidually adjust- 
able and drives up 
to 30G W. runs on 
110 VAC 

Complete kit. 
ML-1 
$8.95 



VldH Modular Kit 
Converts my TV to wdeo monitor Supar 
suable lunabla ov*r ch 4-6 Runi on 5' 
i$v accept i aid vid*gngn4l Bettuntton 
th# msntet' Campiate k.c VD-1 17.55 



Ltd Bllnky Kit 
A great attention get- 
ter which alternately 

flushes 2 jumbo LEDs 
Use for name badges, 
buttons, warning 
panel lights, anything 1 
Runs on 3 to 15 votts 
Complete kit. BUI 
$2,35 




Super Sleuth 

A su pe r sen si t i ve ampli - 
fier which will pick up a 
pin drop at !5feet r Great 
for monitoring baby's 
room ores general pur- 
pose amplifier. Full 2 W 
rms output, runs on 6 to 
15 volts, uses *M5 ohm 
speaker 
Complete kit. BtV-9 

J5.9S 



CPO-1 

Runs on 3-12 Vdc 1 wall oul. 1 KHZ good lor CPO. 

Alarm, Audio Oscillator Complete kit $2,95 




Call Your Phone Order in Today 
TERMS Sail! ' 

S6OT OrfKr*. 

Overs*** .i ' ' '.- ...... | , 



CLOCK KITS 

Your old livoritti are ham again. Ovar 7,000 Sold to Data. 
Be on* of the gang and order youn today 1 

Try your hand at building the finest looking dock on the 
market, Its satin finish anodlzed aluminum case looks great 
anywhere, while six .4" LED digits provide a highly readable 
display. This Js a complete kit, no extras needed 1 and it only 
takes 1-2 hours to assemble. Your choice of case colors; 
silver, gold, black {specify). 

Clock kit, 12/24 hour. DC-5 SZ4.95 

Clock with 10 min. ID timer, 12/24 hour, DC-10 $29.95 

Alarm clock. 12 hour only, DC-S $29,95 

1 2V DC car cEock. DC-7 $29.95 

For wired and tested clocks add $10,00 to kit price. 
Specify 12 or 24 hr. format 



M Wlrelets Mike Kit 

ansmits up to 500' to 

ly FM broadcast ra- 

o, uses any type of 

ifce Runs on 3 to 9V. Type FM-2 

is added sensitive mrke preamp 

age 

,vi kil S3.S5 FM-2 kit $4,95 



An 



Whisper Light Kit 
interesting kit. small mike 



picks up sounds and converts 
them to light. The louder the 
sound, the brighter the light. 
Includes mike, controls up to 
300 W. runs on 110 VAC 
Complete kit. WL-1 
$6.95 




Tone Decoder 
A compleie tone deco- 
der on a single PC 
board Features 400- 
5000 Hz adjustable 
range via 20 turn pot, voltage regu- 
lation, 567 !C. Useful lor touch- 
tone burst detection. FSK. etc 
Can also be used as a stable lone 
encoder. Runs on 5 to 12 volls 
Complete kit. TD-1 $5.95 



Car Clock 

Tha UK-KIT H only 5 aolder connections 

Hares a super looking, rugged and accural* iule deck wnicn n a amp lo build and 

mitall ClocK movement ih. campieieiy assembled — you only toidaf 3 wires and 2 
switches, lafces aboul 15 minulrTi' Display is bright green with iLilornalic bnghlness 
Control photocell — assures you of S highly readable display dayormght Comes mi 
iHin hmsh anodired aluminum case which cm be an ached 5 d iffertm •vayiuaino, 2 sided 

tape Choiet ol silver black or gold case jipeciPy) 



DC-3 hkl 12 hcL.f lo'Ti^ 
DC-3 wired and lesied 



S22.95 



Unlveml Timer Kli 

rovides the basic parts and PC 
03 rd required lo provides source 
t precision timing and pulse 
eneranon Uses S55 timer IC and 
ictudes a range ol parts For most 
mmg needs 
JT-5 KH $5.95 



Mad Blaster Kit 

Prod u ces LOU D ear shatleri ng a nd 

attention getting siren like sound. 
Can supply up to 15 watla ol 
obnoxious audio. Runs on 6-15 VOC 



Siren Kit 
Produces upward and downward 
wail characteristic of a police 
siren, 5 W peak audio output, runs 
on 3-15 volts, uses 3-45 ohm 
speaker. 
Complete kit. SW-3 $295 



Calendar Alarm Clock 
The clock that's got it all: 6-5" LEOs. 
12/24 hour, snooze. 24 hour alarm. 4 
year calendar, batlery backup. and 
lots more The super 7001 chip is 
used Size, 5x4x2 inches, Complete 
kii, less case |not available} 
OC-9 $34.95 



Under Daah Car Clock 

12/M tvruf d«a in a baaulilul pUshc case ttHwn 
ft |,umb>3 RED LEGS haah accuracy ■ CO 'Si east 
3 wir* hiofcup display blank* wirn -gnilion irfl 
lupHf ■nSlTLtC[i«nS OpLDna' d.r^rrrr JluCi-^aVcaHf 
jdjUlEj t1npl*y Eq iraO'inl light le«cE 
DC- l.l ■- r..-. « -h «nlg Urachal 127.11 *.n 

DM-i dimmar adapt*/ £1-50 

Add StQOO Aisy and Tail 



SO Hi Tlrni Baae 
Hgrvi gi 5-15 VDC Low CUTraM | 
Tn,n'rn$nEh acCgraty TB 7 K"t 

TB-J Am 



PARTS PARADE 



Video Terminal 
A etwipHEtiy nEf-ca«vtain«t ila*K!iiai#»i*to tafnurraii caU Rum iras on(» an AScmrvooaiflindTV 
id lo bKomc a com cHct* ttrmiFni um\ Faalu/ai are sinpiaSViupp'y i" T * L z o" I ■ 01 irt ir^c md baun 
rarei no MOOi comjpiaiv compular ano Hflir&Bara -coniTpr ol turner P*n1y trw conlrci and dupiay 
ACCBpIS ana gn-erjEti irrm ASCII plw? p»raH»l ^ayoosrd irrpgl Trv 64 tj ,i 64cMir &j IS hnfi *i1h 
scnbiiing upp*' and io*«* cau (cplrcinait and' hat R5-23Z and ?Dn>i loep uMarFactf gn owq Km 
induce JocnaH and LempJale oecumenlaEiari 
HE S4-Eft ttrmmal card mi (aH IW K lor wr-M u^ili D|) » 

LO*Er Cat* DPVD" tIS H 

Power Supply SI'-M 

Rf UoduiBtcrkir iT.as 



IC SPECIALS 



LINEAR 



M 
is 

'■!', 
-■if. 

87 



»14 

1JJ 



5 : ! : 

I 11.50 
I. « 
!1 E 
(1.00 
H.00 
SI 35 
10/S2.0D 
1.511 
t JO 
1IS5 
tits 



0T1 
013 
OU 
«9 
OSS 
511 
518 
639 



CMOS 



flP*£ 



32.00 

31.15 
♦175 



READOUTS 

HO IS* < C C t 

HD»7/&10 SC A 

«Mi ri'HF7T30 53 L C* 100 

iP .'Hi 4T-CA 2.00 



1,« 



TRANSISTORS 



■!■' J»J UFU 
"HMOSPhlP 
tH4*oa pnp 
IN4aiO MPN 
[N+H6FET 
EN!rto1 PNP 
EHeOfl 

HM37ri HPHSi'.wn 
1W517P UHF hrPN 
*OMf Tab NPN *DW 
*o*»r Tab PNP *0W 
MPf t02^3HS*a( 
NPN 3«M Typt 
PHP iKW Typa 
ZH»S3 



1 1/J.T .00 

i? ji ;■; 

1*711.00 

IS.- II M 
4/11 .» 
W1J0O 
* Ji :c 
1130 
fCOO 
in sc 

3V1.H 
ISO 

M;iJ.» 

K t2 W 

140 

1/ta.oo 



TTL 



74S00 

7447 
7475 
7490 
74196 



$,40 
S.65 
$.50 
S .50 
51.35 



SPECIAL 



10116 




S 1.25 


7208 




(17.50 


7 207 A 




J 5.50 


7216D 




Ml. 00 


7107C 




$12.50 


5314 




) 2.95 


537SAB'G 




12.95 


70Q1 




5 6.50 


FERRITE BEADS 


Wilt, mro .nd 


rr-. 


1W1 » 


4 Mgl. B«1un B«.dl 


S/S1.H 



fl Pin 
14 Pin 
16 Pin 
24 Pin 
28 Pin 
40 Pin 



Sockets 

10/S2.00 
1 07*2.00 
10712.00 
4/S2.00 
47*2.00 
37*2.00 



DIodM 
5.1 V Zener 20/11.00 
1M914 Type S07t1.M 
1KV2Amp 87(1.00 

100V 1Amp 157*1.00 



25 AMP 
100V Bridge 
$1.50 each 

Mini-Bridge 50V 

1 AMP 

2 for $1.00 



Raalalor Aai/I 

Assortment of Popular vatues - V* 
watt. Cut lead for PC mounting, "h" 
canter, W leads, bag of 300 or 
more 

$1.50 



Switch ea 
Mini logoleSPDT 
Red Pushbuttons N.O 



StOO 
37*1.00 



Earphonoi 
3" loads S ohm. good lot sntiil tone 

speakers, alarm ciocha, etc 
5 far 91.00 



Approx ?'-"," 
lype for radios, i 
3 tor S2.D0 



P O j n C 
llh« «1C 



Cryatali 

3.5T954S MHZ S1.50 

10,00000 MHZ *S t (W 

5 246800 MHZ 55.00 



AC Adapter i 

Good lor clocks tread 
chir^orSjBH 110 VAC plU9 
ona and 

ft 5 wdc p 20 itiA $1.00 

16 vac; (3t 160mA J2.50 

12 vac (3 250mA 99,00 



Solid Stal a Buznra 
small buzzer 450 Hj. SS nJO. sound 
outpul on 5-12 vdc at 10-30 mA. TTL 
eompaiibla $1.50 



Slug Tuned Coll* 
Small 3/16'" He* Slugs turned coll 
3 turns ItVU.OO 



AC Outlet 

Panel Mount with Leads 

4/11.00 



CAPACiTOHS 
TAMTALUH 
Olppad Epvn/ 

IJfflSVlfll* 
H(lf.?Mi1lJ» 
2?f£FSSV 1/ttJO 



ALUMINUM 
EfivciroiyEiC 

lOWuFievPiadrai t.sa 

500 uF L s Axial Ufl 
lSduF iGV Axial S.'iT.OO 
1tJuF15VHarJianO/j1,DD 



DOT i«V 

loapf 
wr i6v 



0C-0C Con«rtar 
*5 vdc tnpul prod. -■& vdc @ 30m# 

"9vcfcprcMJuce3"i5vdcr|£)55mi 11.25 



25K 20 Turn Tnm Pot 91.00 
>K 20 Turn Tnm Pol 9 JO 



M:r-I ceramkc F.llqra 7 Khz 
6. W. 455KHZ »i.» •«, 



Trimmer Capi 

Spragufl - 3-40 pi 

Slsble Poly propylene 

.50 aa. 



Crystal Microphone 
Small 1" diameter W* thick 

crystal mtke cartridge 9.75 



Co** Connector 

Chassis mount 

BNC type $1.00 



Mini RG- 174 Coax 
10 ft. lor SI .00 



f Vail Banary Clip. 
Nic* quality clips 5 tor tt.OO 

*i" Rubbar Grommali 10 tor $1,00 



AMI orcMofc** One CSpfl iar>t r*ti*io<t 

irannston d>odas MICA cap? an: 

tan bag (100 pel H «• >fl o*fl 1300 pti 1110 



Conr-tftorp 
S prn typa gold CdnEacts fpr 
mA-iflbl car clock: module 
price- ,75 as. 



Leoe - your choice, please specify 
-Mini Fled. Jumbo Red, High Intensity Red. Illuminator Red o7j1 
Mini Yellow. Jumbo YeMow, Jumbo Green bV$1 



Varaclori 

Motorola MV 2209 30 PF Nomi.ni I cap 20-00 PF - Tunifiln rarvoa - 

,50 each or 3711.00 



Audio 
Preacailer 

Make high resolution audio 
measurments, great for musical 
instrument tuning. PL tones, etc 
Multiplies audio UP in frequency, 
selectable xiO or xiOO, gives ,01 
HZ resolution wilh i sec. gate 
time! High sensitivity of 25 mv, 1 
meg input z and built-in filtering 
gives great performance. Runs 
on 9V battery, all CMOS. 
PS-2 kit $29.95 

PS-2 wired $39.95 



600 MHz 
PRESCALER 



mp 



Extend trie range of your 
counter to 600 MHz. Works 
with all counters. Less than 
150 mv sensitivity, specify - 
10 or -100 



Wired, tested, PS-1B 
Kit. PS-IB 



$59.95 
$44.95 



30 Walt 2 mtr PWR AMP 

Simple Class C power amp features 8 times power gain. 1 Win 
for 8 out. 2WinloM5out.4Winfor30out. Max output of 35 W, 
incredible value, complete with all parts, less case and T-R relay. 
PA-1. 30 W pwr amp kit $22.95 

TR-1, RF sensed T-H relay kit 6.95 



MRF-23B transistor as used in PA-1 

B-tQdbgain 150 mh* 51195 



RF actuated relay senses RF 

(1 W) and closes DPOT relay. 

For RF sensed T-R relay 

TR-1 Kit $6.95 



Power Supply KH 

Complete triple regul&led power 

supply provides variable 6 to IS volts al 

200 ma and *5ati Amp Excellent load 

regulation, good' llllenng and small 

size Less Iransformers, requires S3 V 

li 1 A and 2J VCT 

Complete kit, PS-3LT «,9S 



OP- AMP Special 
BE-FET LF 13741 - Direct pin tor pin 741 compatible, but 500.000 MEG 
Input z. super low 50 pa input current, low power dram 
SO lor only $9.00 10 for Sz 00 



7aMG 

79MG 

723 

3C9K 

7805 



$1.25 

St. IS 

$.50 

$1.1* 

1 1. 00 



Regulator. 



7812 


51.00 


7815 


(1.00 


7905 


$1.25 


7912 


$1.25 


7915 


$1.25 



Shrink Tubing Nuhi 
Nica prtcul peas of shrink sue r i V 
srinnk Id V Graal tor ipliets EC'S 1.00 



Mini TO -92 Heat Sinks 
Thermal loy Bum) Stertl.00 

Tc-zzo Hiai Sink> ] lor 11. H 



Opto Isolators - 4N28 type 

Opto Reflectors - Photo diode + LED 



H 



150 ea. 
$1,00 ea. 



Motax Pirn 
McJex*lra*Jy pnacut in tertgtti of 7 Pariect 
lor 14 pwi aochaa M iirtpa lor fjjg 



CDS PholocaJJa 

Bo5ij(*rice ttinn with !>g-h1. £S0 ohma to 
OVtr 5 mag 3 Iftr 11.00 



0> 

m 
m 

DO 

m 

J3 

CD 
00 
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CIRCLE 31 OK FREE INFORMATION CARD 



115 



r ^m 



116 



SMI400M .30 

SNT401M ,20 

SNTMJN -M 

SN740JN Jfi 

SN74CHN J3 

SNMCKN .29 

SNM0}H Jf 

5NH0IN JO 

5NM09N .20 

SNHlDN .tl 

SNM1JN .:i 

SINMUtN a 

5NH1JN .4fl 

SrVT4U4.Ni .30 

5NJ*ltN .S 

SNM17N J5 

SNTOON JO 

SNMJlIN JJ 

SIM7422N .» 

SNMJJN .3 

SN74&N J) 

SN74J2N ..?? 

5N742 F N .::. 

SN,4MN .., 

SN.M-MN .20 

SN74HN .3 

5TJM3JN .» 

SN74SN .40 

5N74J9N .3 

SN,44flN .3d 

SN7441N .19 

SNT44IN P » 

5HJ44JN ,n 

5NT444N .79 

5W445N .75 

SNT44$N .« 

SNM4.N .M 

SNJ4UN .» 

5NM»N .» 

SN74JIN Jt> 

5MJ413N JO 

SNHS4I4 .» 

5IVJ4MA .» 

SHJ44DH .20 



7400 TTL 

SNM7W ,29 

SNJ47UN ,39 

SNJ4J3N J6 

SN74HN ,X 

SN747IN. .« 

SNT4HN JS 

SNTJT9H 9.09 

SMMHM JO 

SNMCN .» 

SN744JN ,H 

5INJVU6IM M 

SMJ*BIH JS 

SNJ4RN 1,B 

SNI*N ,45 

SMT«1M .h 

SNWZN .43 

SNMHN ,*3 

5.NI494N .65 

SN7495IM ..65 

SN7496H .65 

5NWJN LOO 

SILICON 1.25 

sn.4i.oin .:■:. 

SNHLOIN .» 

5H74.J.&N 1.95 

SNMI21N JS 

5N7412J.N 39 

SNH1SN -: 

5N74ESN .49 

SNMI33N .75 

SN74136N .71 

SN74HIN ,79 

SNMUZrV ?J6 

SN 14143*4 z.« 

SNMM4N 2,» 

SN74145N ,79 

SNM14TN IJ5 

5N74W4N 1.29 

SNrt)5DP4 l.» 

SNM151N .59 

SNH1MN .59 

5W74151N ,59 

SN 74154 IM L50 

SN74IBN .79 

SNM1SSN ,79 

SM74J57iN .6* 



SNJ4.(CN M 

5NHJ.UN J* 

SN74IUN J3 

SNT4164N ,n 

SN741&SN Jl 

SHH166N LB 

swii&jn us 

SM74170N Ufl 

SN74172K 4.00 

SNH173N !J5 

SN.-*!NN LOO 

SNIUlftf* 1.00 

5NM1KN ,79 

SH7*177H ,79 

SNtMlTSN UH 

SNMIMf/ .79 

5JM741HIM 1,95 

SNUllZN ,71 

5N741KN LM 

SN»»N t,H 

SNMUSN 4,95 

SH743MN 1.H 

SN74199N 1.3 

SN741S1N 1.3 

SN74MKN .79 

SN74143N .79 

SN 74194 N .» 

SN74J95N .69 

SNH1SN .19 

5N.4H7N At 

5H7419JN l.#» 

SrJH]S3H 1,49 

SN74S200 4.« 

SN74S1N .99 

5N74JHN .79 

SN7433N UJ 

SN?4Jt4N 3.» 

SN742WN 3.95 

SM743HN .09 

5NMJMN .09 

5N74J6JJN M 

SN74344M .C9 

SN74SON 1.55 

SM;439IM 1.95 



CD400Q .K 

CD4001 ..-.i 

co4occ .n 

CO40S L19 

COH07 .25 

CD4009 M 

CD4010 .« 

CDMI] .39 

CD40J3 J5 

CD4013 .49 

CM|4 IJ9 

CEM»5 1.19 

CD40JG .59 

CC-B17 J.IS 

COM It .99 

Ct>»19 .49 

COW20 J, 19 

CD4C2I L» 

CEXOZZ L19 

couai .a 

CC4QJ4 ,79 

CD402 ,23 

CD40X 2,95 

CEMQ27 ,69 



CMOS 



CD402I 
CD4029 

CDHM 

cd*w 
CCHOil 
CDW2 
CD4Q43 
CD40U 
CO4046 
CD40i; 
CD40U 
CD4049 
CO4050 

CD4K3 
CO405S 
CD4059 

CD40S 
CD40U 
CD4QS9 



L79 
l-S 



1,19 

1.14 
2.95 
9.95 



CO40T0 

CD4071 

CO4072 

CD4d7«; 

COUC1 

CD40C 

CO409J 

CCM0H 

MCI44W 14.95 

MC14410 14.95 

MC144.11 M.B 

WICI4439 4.95 

MCL44J3 13,45 

MC1450H .75 

MC14Wf .» 

MC14S&7 11.95 

HClrtB 

CO450C 

CCJ5L0 

CD4&11 

C04515 

CCH5L4 

CCX520 

CD*566 



1.19 



1.19 



3.45 



l.Z» 
2.93 

1.29 
1.24 



MC03 .39 

74C02 ,39 

74C04 .45 

74C0I M 

KC1D ,39 

74CH 3JS 

7*C20 .39 

74jC«2 JL9S 

74C4 2.49 

74.C73 M 

74C74 .M 



74C00 



74CB 
74«0 
74C93 
74C1S 

74C15I 

74C154 
74C157 

74C160 
?*Gt6l 



1-94 
t,9S 
1,95 
1.2 
2.90 
1,00 
2.1.5 
2.49 
2.49 



74C1£3 
74C1M 

74C173 
74C192 
74C141 
74C195 
74C923 
74C423 
74C92S 
74C92S 
I0C45 
I0C97 



2.49 
2.44 
3jS0 
2.49 
3VM 
2.M 
7.95 
S^ 
1,45 
t.95 
1J0 
1^0 



71UO L7S 

LM-KM ,99 

LMJOOH .*0 
LMJOtCN/H J5 

LMJ02H .75 

LM304H 1,00 

LM3C5H ,M 
LMX7GN/H .35 
LMK4CN/H1.00 

LM309H 1.10 

LM309K l.» 

LM310CN L« 

l-t.12.:.'J,.H .90 

LMJIJH 1,95 

LM3L7K 6,50 
LHJliCN,'h L.50 

LMJ39N l.X 

LM320K4 1,35 

LM!S';5.i 1,35 

LMJ20K-12 1,25 

LM3WK-15 1.35 

LMJ20K-J 1.35 

LM32QK-24 1.35 

LM330T-5 1.25 

LMJWT-5.2 1.3 

LMBOT-I LS 

LWBBT 12 1.25 

LV320T-15 1.25 

LM330T-I* 1-S 

LMi20T-:i 1.3 

LM3ZIK-S 5.45 

LM324M 1.49 

LMU4N M 
LM340K-S 
UMMOM 
L*S1140K4 

LMMOK-17 1.35 

LM34QK-15 1.35 



1.35 
1.35 

1-3* 



LINEAR 

LM440K-11 1JS 
LM340K-24 1,35 
LMJWT-S 1.3S 
i.MJWT-6 1.3 
LM3«T-e 1.25 
L.MJWT-13 1.25 
LM3+0T-15 1,3 
LM34BT-U 1.25 
LM340T-24 1.25 
LM35BH 
LM370N 
LMJ73M 
LMJFFN 
LMSWN 
LM300CN 
LM31N 
LMJS2N 
NE501N 
NE5I0A 
NE529A 
MES31H/V 3,95 
NE536T 1.00 

ME544M 



l-OO 
1-9S 

3.a 

4.00 

1J5 



NE556N 

NESfiOQ 
NE552B 

NE5MCN 

NE5S7V/H 
N£S30N 
LMJWCW/W 
L_M7D?74/H 



6-M 
4.9S 

1.30 



1.19 



LM710N 
LM711N 
■LMTJ1.N/H 
LM733N 
LM739N 
LM741CM/H 
UM741-14N J4 
LM747N/H .?•] 
LM74JM/H .33 
LM1310N 1.95 
LMI45ICN/H.59 
MCIOIN 1,95 
MCS4MN 1.95 
LM14KN .95 

LME55SV 1.75 
MC1741SCP 3,00 
LM2111N L95 
LM2901N 2.95 
LM3Q53N 150 

LM3055N 1*9 
LU390ONC340l].59 
LM3W5N 
LM3509N 

Mcaaa ■.■ 



LMntaoM 

7545ICN 

7S452CN 

7544JCN 

75454 CN 

75491C N 

75492CN 

75*§1W 

7S444CN 

RC4135 

ftC4|151 

RC4194 

RC*L95 



4.95 



74LSOO 
74|_»t 

f4LS« 
FILSOI 
74LSM 
74LS05 
?4LSM 
74LS09 
74L510 
74LSI1 
74LSU 
T4LS14 
74US15 
HLSaO 
74LS2I 
74LSH 
74USS* 
74LS27 
74LS3 
74LS30 
74LS32 
74LS37 
74U540 
74L&U 



74US00TTL 
74LS5I 
74LS54 
74L555 
74LS73 
74LS7* 
74LS75 
74U57S 
HUSH 
T4LS03 
74L545 
74L.S8* 
HLS90 
J4L5K 
74.U593 
74JL9K 
74L&H 
74L5107 
74L5109 
74LS112 
74LS123 
74LS13 
74ILS112 
74LS1K 
74L51U 



.:: 



a 



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LIS 



:,^ 



74LSE39 
74L5.151 
74L5J55 
74LSI15T 
74LS160 
74LSIS1 
74l_Sl«2 
74LSU3 
74'LSW 
74LS175 
74LSU1 
74LS19D 
7^L519l 
74.L.S142 
74.LS143 
74LS194 
74LS195 
J4LS25] 
7JLS357 
74L5219 
74LS3D 
7ILS279 
74LS357 

74 Law 



JESD8 PROGRAMMER 

2704 /270B EPROM PROGRAMMER 



] irrrt S*,, <*« Hi;iM<">>r>pHn<llL[l>l]'I , i 
It *M m * Inn 1 1 is -'-——■* ■ nilbMI Til !!■! Will 




L f Q"f ■.' SriHi'i r >^mai hf* 



JE608 KJT $399.95 

JE608 Assembled and Tested $499.95 



XC546R .200" rod 

XC5MO .2W" «r-Mn. 

XCSHV .:■*]■■ yellow 

XC56SC .200" clur 

XC22R .200" r»d 

XC22G J05"4i"e*n 

■:■;:' ;'>:■■■ ■-■.:- io .■- 

MV10B .170" red 



DISCRETE LEDS 

MVS0 ,0K" red t/Sl 

XC209R .12" red 5/51 

XC209G ,ia"0re4rt 4/$l 

XC3MV -I3"vil|rjw 4/Jl 

XC524R .1«" red 5/$I 

XC525Q .I05"gr*an */5J 

XCWiY , IB" yellow 4/JI 

XC525C ,1B5" Cltir i/51 



XCIilR ,190" r«d 5/51 

XCIIiO .IW'srMn 4/Jl 

XCIUV ,1«" ytllnw 4/JL 

XCI31C .190"CllBr 4/51 



INFRA-RED LED 

rj(»")tW h tlit 5/5t 



DISPLAY LEDS 



rouuwnr 
OvfKiwn AflMle-rtd 
5 x 7 Bel Murtvmf 



Cwirnori Arqdi jiIdb 



lUNSRH 

uuiara 

W4H451D 

UV4 4J4D 
U«i 4710 
MAMirM 
'iv, (7« 

MAX 4Mrj 



ConwiKfl Ciftodi-ydbB 
Common Afloo>-a<v^i 



Common Anodi-ofinoi 

Common Cwdt-oninQt 
CgrrmOn fcuN^rrd 
Gammon MotH-nd • I 
Common- CiTnodi-rid 
Comnwi tjqiti&jw 
Cttnmsn UVult-ypIbB 
Conrmwi AnMr-otinffi-O 




2.95 UAH $730 Common Jkncat -ltd ; 1 

4.45 Mjlh (740 Common Catfco* ■ wd 3 

.25 HAN 0750 Common Cimoclt-rrt ± I 

1.95 WAN B7 BO Ctmnign Anodt *d 

1.25 UWf 6?» 

.94 D17B1 

.» DL70* 

LS 0L707 

.49 Dim 

.99 DL741 

.48 OL740 

M OL747 

.99 OL749 

,99 0L75Q Common CiMidi-nd 

.43 DL33B Common Caffioof -ni 

.94 FNQ7D Cpfflffitfi Cffw* 

.99 moss* 

.99 FWD354 

.93 TMOHO 

.94 FND507 Common taoOi|FHOS1 ft 

.99 50*2-7730 Common Anodt-nri 

.99 HDSP-..S40J Commen Ar»d>-r*d 

.44 WOSf J4B$ Cofonviv Ctfwd* rrt 

.49 5OC--730O 4 1 7 ml. DiOf-RHQF 

.99 50427302 1 1 7 Sol &jrf-LHW 

.44 50K2-7904 OWWdl chindtr !±n 

.49 5042 7340 4 1 1 £gl. (hgrf-H 



19.95 

19.95 
15.D0 
22.50 



RCA LINEAR 



CA30UT 2.15 

CA202JT 3,35 

CA3035T 2,4V 

CAJ0J9T LK 

CA3040N 1,30 

CA3059N 1,2 

CAJQEOH 3,3 

CA30IQT 1,25 

CA30UN 2.K 



CA30t2N 2.00 

CA30UN LOO 

CA30*5N JS 

CA30C1N 175 

CA3130T 1-39 

CA3.14QT 1J5 

CA1E6QT ]J5 

CA5401N .54 

CAJSBN 3,50 



CALCULATOR 

CHIPS,. 'DRIVERS 

MM5725 £2.45 

MM573I 2.95 

□MUM 2.00 

DMU& ].s» 

□ MSH7 .75 

DM£U4 .75 



LOW PROFILE 
{TIN} SOCKETS 

-24 25n« 50-100 



I r..n LP 

14 pin LP 

15 pin LP 

It pin i. ■ 

20 P9n LP 
22 Pin LP 
24 pin LP 

21 pin LP- 
3Splrt LP 
40 pin LP 



.17 



.15 



SOLDERTAIL^GOLO} 
STANDARD 



4 pin SG 

14 pin SG 

15 pin SG 

■i! . P-.n Sf.i 
?* Pin SG 

;: pin sg 

*pm SG 
40 pin SG 



CLOCK CHIPS 



Mktsaaj 

MM53I1 
MM53I2 
MM5314 

MV5;li 
MM 51=4 
MM53H 



AM 

4.95 
4.95 

«.» 
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2.95 



MOTOROLA 

MC14SLT 4.S 

MCMOHJ 5.75 

MCW39L 2.95 

MCJQ22P 2,95 

MC3061P l.« 
IVC40«p44a«)7.M 

MC4024P 3,96 

MC4040P 5,95 

MC4044P 4,50 



ITrfrfl 



SOLOERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 



14 pin ST 

15 Pin ST 
IS pin ST 
H Pin ST 
3* pm ST 
31 pill ST 
40 pin ST 



w 

ipun WW 

10 pin WW 
14 plfl WW 
If Pin WW 

11 pin WW 
20 pin WW 
S3 pin ww 
34 pin WW 
2> pin WW 
31 pin ww 
40 pin ww 



WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLDUEVEL #3 



1/4 WATT RESISTOR ASSORTMENTS -5% 



1O0HU TOrtl ildHW 1| DKU ?.; OhW 

? T GHM i3 0HU 13 DiO* 47 QHW 

tl fJHM « OMU rOO OHV r20 OHtf 

1H OHW ??S DHW ?JQ OHM 330 OHM 390 OiU 

i.^OhiU bffl Dhlt |«qoh V B2aOnV 

i.^ r.s* in j.7, 

I* 3.* 4 .nt i** 

l> »K l?« iv 

72* ;:< 33« 3K 

» W Ci IB3K 

150X IBW 7J0. 27(K 

3SEM 4m i*> iBCK 



1.7W 
J.J*i 



.,. 



■ BW 



Li 



4CMV 


MFCS 


$1.75 


O OHM 


MPCJ 


1.75 


.V* 


HI PCS 


1.75 


IM 


JO PCS 


1.75 


I3AI 


■ ret 


1.75 


B2tt 


SO PCS 


1.75 


S4M 


■tret 


1.75 



ftSST.Bfl Includes Resistor Assortments 1-7(350 PCS) S9.95 63. 



S 10.00 Min. Oidir - U.S. Fundi Only SfMC ShMti - 25 i 

Ollf. R.sWinti Add 6X Silts Tl> 1980 Ctulog AvVllbll -SmllWuinp 

Po «»»• - Add 5« plu I S 1 1n tur a r>e> 1 1 1 dimal I 

PHONE 

ORDERS 

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13S5 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 




TELEPHONE/KEYBOARD CHIPS % 

AVW1W FMin Button Ta I, phone Dialler IM.fS 

av*53co na»rtory Olallar l*.g* 

AV449U CMOS croch G*n*rator i.y. 

Ayi-23?s Kayooar d Encoder (H kays) 14.« 

HDCJts Keyboard Encoder S5 keyi 7JS 

Keyboard Encoder (IS kayi J.« 
' - C3 I""" 



Kayn Parti EncoOfrr 



| kaytj 



t-S 



ICM70J5 

amos 
oiraw 
iai7zu 

1CU7!« 



ICM CHIPS 

CMOS Pmrdon Timer 
CMOS L60 S1opMIBl.Tlmi 
OtoditDr Contr&lfe 
Seven Decade Counter 
Clotit uefletltnr 



19 SS 

r.so 
ess 





NMOS BEAD ONLY MEHOFtllS 




UCUU7I 


\n X 9 X 7 ASCII Shifted iffll orevt 


13 M 


WMfSM 


13 X 9 X I Mim Symbol J ptctuiR 


13.50 


WMtSTS 


II! t S X 7 Moru Cornmi Our Gen 


1SS0 



MISCELLANEOUS 

TL07«Cn OjH L«r NoiH bi-![t OH Amp Z <9 

TLa54C.S Svllcrilnn pagutdor 4.ag 

TU9KJ" Sir>(li SMdwig Saoullttr ITS 

11090 DivHje 10(11 Prejufc- 1S.9S 

9SH90 HI.SoHd DM* 10(11 PrBOIet 11.9! 

1N33 Plwln-OirliHIoii Optt-lHMw iVi 

MK5O210 Top CkJim nig. CBunw 1 7 » 

9SW2SCH SHru !.*liut MCS ttict driver 3 75 

TIL30S ??' rtd num. dripliy*/Mlig. lojtc chip 10 &5 

MMSX0 IV bnviii Sync Glrwiur It 95 

laUStH m Dlgtl DPM Lcajic Btoc* ISpeoiel I 3 95 

LD110.-111 3Vt Dig* Ha Convmn S« :5 00 Mr 

MCltaijp 317 Digit VD C onvwUf ' 13 95 



LITROKIX 1S0U1 1 

PTkho Tnnvita( OpIO'luleEer 
(Skm u MCT I oi inzjj 

M'i each 



SH7MH 

SOUND GENERATOR 
Generates Complex Sound: 
Lmv Poem - Programmiblfl 

S3. 95 each 



TV GAME CHIP AND CRYSTAL 

AY-a-ajOO-l md 2.01 Mm CrysM (Olig S Ctyjul 

include; score JhfljW, 6 gj-nc? and Klect ingl«. ilc. 7. Jp/SBt 



53*0 
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ULTRAVIOLET 

INTENSITY 

METER 




by BLAK-RAY 



TWO MODELS: 
LONG WAVE 

AND 
SHORT WAVE 



Meter consists of a sensor cell attached to 
a compact (3" x 354" >: 3") metering unit. 
Can be hand-held or placed directly on 
surface for measuring. Can be used re- 
motely, while connected to a meter hous- 
ing by a 4- foot extension cord. Two 
models available — one for long wave 
and one for short wave ultraviolet. Read- 
ings are in microwatts per square centi- 
meter. Weight: 1 lb. 

Completely assembled {includes senior 
cell, reduction screen, extension cord, 
contrast filter and certification report.) 

J-221 LONGWAVE Artjui nr\ 
(30Onm-4O0nm) $24Z.UU 

J -225 SHORT WAVE ^ 



EPROM Erasing Lamp 




• Erases 270 B, 271 6, 1702A, S203Q, 5204 Q. etc. 

• Erase* lip to 4 chips within 20 minutes 

• Maintains constant exposure distance of one inch 

• Specud conductive foam liner eliminates static 
build-up 

' Built-in safety lock to prevent UV exposure 

• Compact - only 7-5/8" x 2-7/8" x 2" 

• Complete with holding trey for 4 chips 

UVS-11E $69.95 



MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



Jumbo 6-Digit Clock Kit 




* Four jH"ht. and two „3ofir"nt. 
common anode displays 

* U»S MMWH clock chip 

♦Swltctint for hours, minutes *n<fJ hold fund ton* 

* Hour* eiiliy viewable to 30 fees 

* Simulated walnut caw 

* 115 VAC operation 

* >? &i L'< Hour operation 

* Includes all components, cam and wall transformer 
*3lniMKl%xll 

JE747.. $29.95 




JE701 



• Bright .300 hi, comm. cjth- 
ode display 

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• Sw.tchos TO' hours, minutes 
and hold modes 

• KrL *«Hv Vitwabla to 20 ft. 

• Sim n!* tnd walnut era 

• 115 VAC operation 

■ 1 2 Oir 54 h F . op«re 1 1 On 
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Function 
Generator Kit 



6-Digit Clock Kit $19.95 



Regulated Power Supply 

Uses LM309K. Heat sink . 
provided. PC board con- — 
struction. Provides a solid — 

1 amp & 5 volts. Can supply up 
to i5V, =9V and =12V with 
JE205 Adapter. Includes compo- 
nents, hardware and instructions. 
Siie: 3)4" x 5" x 2"H 

JE200 $14.95 




m 



ADAPTER BOARD 
—Adapts to JE200- 
+5V, ±9V and ±12V 



OC/DC converter with +5V inpUL Toriodaj hi- 
speed switching XMFR. Short circuit protection. 
PC board construction. Piggy-back to JE 200 
board. Size: 3'A" x2"x9/t6"H 



V: 



JE205 



$12.95 




Provide* 3 belie 

wJJVfl frjrnls. *i"o. 

trlenfrla erxi square 
wave, Freq. rang* 
from 1 Hz to TOOK 
Hz, Ckilput zi ■ i ! i > I ■ - 
tude from velti 
to over fj vo-ltt 
|p««k to peak}. 
Urns e 12V jupply 
or a GV iplit sup- 
ply. Include*! chip, 
I'.C. Board r com- 
ponente & instnjr;- 



JE2206B . . . .$19.95 



DIGITAL 
THERMOMETER KIT 




• Dual MMmO « i - iw i E c h ling conErnfc lar t, 
de-or/outdoor or dual monitorlm, 

»Coni!ri.LiOUi LED ,0" hx. di«al*y 

• Range: -40*F to 1flfi*P / -40*C to lOQ-C 
•ACCurecV: ±1*nOm[n#l 

«S#t for Fahrenraeic Or Celtlui r*adiotj 
•Siiti. walnut caie - AC ivm ■deamf Inel 
■ SI ze: 3-1 /A" H k fi-fi/S"' W k 1 •3/i" D 

JE300 $39.95 



DESIGNERS' SERIES 
Blank Desk-Top Electronic Enclosures 

* Hiqh rtrenDji.fi cpoxy moldt-d 
ona pieces in inochi brown 
finish, 

* Siitfingrcir/bottoiu pine) for 
«rvicc and component ic- 
ctiabiiity H 

* Tap/bDtta-m p*ntIi.D<a thk 

jluiA. AloditH typt 1Z0O 
finiiti (gold tint cotori for 
beet piint idhesio'n iftef 
mDdifiatrDn, 

* Vented Top and bottom 
panel* for CDpling iff icisjiCy. 

* Rin id conxtruclion provirJfH 
unlimited jpplrutiom, 

CONSTBUCTION: 

The "DTE" Blank Oeik Tup Electronic EneloHJretflFo designed to blend and complament 
today's unoclern computer equipment: and can be used in both industrial and home. The 
end pieces are precisian molded with an internal tlot tall around) to accept both top and 
bottom panels. The paneli are then lastened to )i" thick tabs inside the end piece* la 
provide maximum rigidity to the enclosure. For ease ol equipment ifmemg, the rear. 1 ' 
bottom pana-l tiides back on slntted trackii while tha rest ol" the enclosure remains '"■ 
tact. Difierent panel widths may be used while maintaining a earn man profile outline. 
The molded end pieces can alio be painted to match any panel color scheme. 





Enclosure 
Model No. 


PaiHl 
Width 


PRICE 


. DTE-8 


8.00" 


S29.;)E 


DTE-11 


10.65" 


$32,95 


1 DTE- 14 


14.00" 


$34.95 



The Incredible 
"Pennywhlstle 703" 




$139 



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16K Conversion Kit 

Ejupand your 4K TR5 SO Syil»m !o lfiK, 

Kit comet cample t* wi t h ; 

* 8 eecb UPD41S 1 f1l>K PynemlE Rami ] 250NS 

* Dacu mentation for conversion 

TRS-16K $59.95 



JE610 ASCII 
Encoded Keyboard Kit 




The JEG1Q ASCII Keyboard Kit can be interftcad Into 
most any computer system. The kit comes complete 
with an industrial grade keyboard switch Assembly 
462-keySr, IC't, sockets, connector, electronic compo- 
nents and a double-sided printed wiring board. The 
keyboard assembly requires +5V @ 150mA and -12V 
@ 1 0m A lor Operation. Features- 60 keys generate the 
full 123 characters, upper and lower case ASCII set. 
Fully buffered. Two user-define keys provided for 
custom applications. Caps lock for upper-cate-only 
alpha characters. Utilizes a 2376 (40-pin} encoder 
read-only memory chip. Outputs directly compatible 
with TTL/DTL or M0S logic arrays. Easy interfacing 
with a IB-pin dip or 1 Spin edge connector, 

JE610 {Cm not included) $79,95 

DeskTop Enclosure for 
JE610 ASCII Encoded Keyboard Kit 

Compact desk-top enclosures Color-coordinated de- 
signer's ease with light tan aluminum panels and molded 
and pieces in mocha brown. Includes mounting hardware. 
Size: 3W"H K 14>S"Vr x8K"D, 

DTE-AK $49.95 



SPECIAL: JE510/DTE-AK PURCHASED TOGETHER 

(Value S1Z9.90J S124.95 



$10.00 Min- Order - U.S. Fundi Only SfMK Srvteu - 2Se" 

Calif. Resident* Add BX Sa las Tax 1 3 BO Cata log Ave I labia - SaneE 41 i stamp 

Poxltg* - Add 5% plus S>1 In sura nee f if desired} 




ameco 



PHONE 

ORDERS 

WELCOME 

(41 E) 592 8097 



MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS - WORLDWIDE 

1355 SHOREWAY flOAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



JE600 
Hexadecimal Encoder Kit 




FULL B-BIT 

LATCHED OUTPUT 
19-KEY KEYBOARD 



The JEfiQO Encadar Kcyfaaard Kit provides two separate 
hexadecimal digits produced from sequential kev antrias 
to allow direct programming for 8-bil microprpenssor 
or 8-bit memory circuits. Three additional keys are 
provided for user operations with one haying a bistable 
output available. The outputs are latched and monitored 
with 3 LED readouts. Also included isakey entry strobe. 
Features: Full 8-bit latched output for microprocessor 
use. Three user-define keys with one being bistable 
operation. Debounco circuit provided for all 13 keys. 
9 LEO readouts to verify entries, Easy interfacing with 
standard tfj-pln 1C connector. Only +5VDC required for 
operation. 

JE600 (Cist not included) $59.95 

Desk-Top Enclosure for 
JEBOO' Hexadecimal Keyboard Kit 
Compact daiVtop iKctoiun: Color-coordinated d«. 
■idler's caw with light ran aluminum patwlt anct molded 
■ nd pices in mocha brown. Includoimounlins hardware. 
Stca: 3H"H x SY.-H % 0-i"D. 



DTE-HK 



.344.95 



SPECIAL: JEBOO/OTE-HK PUHCHASEO TOGETHER 
(Value S104.90) $99.95 j 



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7*C147 

I*C1B0 

74Cllil 

74C1B3 

T4C16J 

?<CI7J 

T*CI74 

74C1T5 

T4CSI2 

^ClB3 

7«CIB5 

r4,CS22 

MCS23 

HMBCK 

MM60C-B7 



2.4B 
225 
12.95 
1295 
12,95 
12JH 
A.95 
494 



3« 
1JB 

13* 
3» 



210 

Z3G 
23ft 
23B 
2 5B 
2.75 
2.75 
2 39 
131 
2 311 
7.15 
615 
1.40 
■ 25 



74LS00 



74L3O0H 
74L3aiH 
74LS02N 
74LS03N 
74L304K 
74LSD5N 
74LSOHN 
74LSDBN 
74LS10N 
74L311N 
7413 I2N 
74LSI3N 
74LSI4N 
74LS14N 
7413»N 
T4LSJ1N 
74LS2JN 
74tS»N 
741S37N 
74LS2JIN 
74LS30N 
74L332N 
74L33TM 

:*lsm.n 

74I34W 

74LS42N 
74tS4TN 
74L54AN 
74L361N 
74L344N 
74LS&4N 
74LS7JN 
T4LS74M 
74L574N 
74L576N 
74LS7&N 
74L563AN 
74L5A4N 
74LS94N 
74L$90N 
74L592N 
74LS93N 
74L594N 
74L544N 
74LST07H 
74LS199H 
74LS112N 
74LS113W 
74LS1 14M 
74LS122H 
74L5123H 
r4Ltl:J4W 
74L5.124M 
T4Lfl12flH 
7*LS132N 
74L5134M 
74L513W4 
T4LS139H 
74LS144N 
I4LM4SN 
r«L£l5TH 
7415153*1 
74U144*J 
r4LSi55M 
?4L5146*I 
74U5.WIH 
r4LBl5ftM 
T4LS1AON 
rJLSHtN 
r4LSl6JH 
74LS14JM 



3i 74LSG»*il 

» 74L31UH 

2* 741S1UM 

2» 74LS1QSH 

3A 74LS149H 

23 74LSI17CM 

39 74LS1T3M 

39 74LS174M 

2X 74LS17W 

39 74L51S1H 

J& 74LST&SH 

j47 T'LSIfttH 

! ?5 74L3il92N 

3« r.iisi j:i l . 

20 74L51MH 

3S '.--LLSi JS'i 

7 1 74L5194H 

J39 74L3.197H 

,39 r.LLS:2l"4 

39 74L524W 

3C 74LS:-!1H 

» T4US2JI2N 

7* r*LSi4jN 

3ft 74L3344N 

2t T4LS24&H 

Tft 74LS247N 

7* r4L524aN 

.T» T4L5349H 

» 74L52S1H 

J4 r4L5J53N 

-3* r4LS247N 

45 r4US2WH 

5ft r4LS35»N 

63 74L52MH 

.45 r4LSMlN 

95 r4LS25«N 
9ft MLSSTSH 

1.1S 74LS376N 

45 T4LS27ftH 

.79 74L3353N 

.75 r4LS2«0N 

.76 74tS393N 

.55 74LSM5H 

35 74L524WJ 

49 74Ji334H 

45 74LS347H 

4B ;jlS34BN 

4« 74iS392N 

55 741S353N 

55 74LS353N 

1.1ft 74US355N 

134 74L536CH 

5ft 74L3357H 

5S 74LS3MN 

JB 741S373W 

5fi 74LS374N 

m 74LS375N 

5ft 74LS377N 

1.24 74L5355N 

149 74L53B5N 

.79 74LS3B0N 

.78 74LS393N 

24B 74LS3B5N 

1.19 74L53BftN 

,Bfl 74LS424N 

!B 74LS555N 

Jfi 74L3970H 

.35 flli3S5H 

1,15 B1L5B5N 

Bfl £1LS&7N 

96 51L5HN 




229 
2J2S 

tM 
Ud 
1 la 

: tS 



1 ■-,-, 

Iff: 

i,M 



LINEAR 



595 



2 ft? 



325 



1.25 



2.76 



125 



76Hqa, 

75M09 
76MQ 
L.M1Q5H 

LHtOBAH 

LM30OH 

LH3Q1C14M 

LM304H 

LW305H 

LH30BH 

LUSWtHfH 

uooeow 

LHJOftK 
LM3jtOCN 

i.H3tiiycNrtt 95 

LU3I12H 
L.M317T 

UH315CWH 1,4ft 

UH31AN/H 1 25 

LM320T-3OC 

LM320H.JO:* 1 25 

LU&3K 435 

LUS4N 1 25 

LWJ3ft*J 35 

L.«S4C*-3W 1 49 

L M340T-XX' 1 a 

LU34CH B< + 1 25 

LU344H iftj. 

LU345N 165 

LU355CM «6 

LM3C0N 1*9 

LMJ72M 195 

LUJ75N 3 75 

L.M377N 176 

LM35CCN/N 1 36 

LMM5M 179 

LU353T 1 ft5 

LM3SAN 1,4ft 

LW357N 149 

LM990N Ift5 

N£43IV/T 375 

NE&55V 39 

N£555N 9fl 

N£4E1T 10 35 

NE5D2D 7 9$ 

HEbBSHfH 125 

NtSKHW 175 

HEM7V/H 150 

HE5B2N 2 74 

LP4702H 2B9 

LM7D9N/H 2ft 

LW7IW4VH 95 

LHItiWH 38 

LhCT14N 1 '..-. 
LM723N.'H 



1.49 



I5D 



I.U1414M l.BO 

LU1444CN/N 49 
UC14U.N 1 49 
MCI 4*M 
L.U149SM 

LMlS';^M 

LM16CON 
LU1630N 
LM10WM 
LM1659N 
LU21UH 
LMJftOOW 
LMJKlti 
LU2ftl7*l 
CAM13T 



75 



LMFJtN 1.15 

LMT41CWH 33 

LM741CN-14 IB 

LMr*rivH 79 

LM745N7H .39 

LM7flOCN 2B5 

LMI310M 1 90 



CA3Q16T 

CA3021T 

CA30337 

CA3036T 

CA303BT ■ 

C*KH6T 

LW3053M 

CA3059N 

CA3O&0N 

CA3DB2N 

LI43(H4N 

CA30S0N 

CA3Q51H 

CA3DB2H 

CUM3H 

CA3DB5H 

C43D5BN 

CA3D95H 

CA3097H 

CA3130T 

C«140T 

CA3H6M 

CA31B0T 

CA31BQN 

U3401N 

MC3423N 

h*C34«ON 

Sa3524N 

CA3000N 

LM390DN 

LIA3905N 

LU39D9N 

PC4131H 

fiC-«i3fiN 

BC4151M 

K4194 

nC4l94 
ULH2O09 

ULN2003 
SH-t4K.h 

SH 75451 N 

■l'1-WJt. 

SWrS464N 

SN75492N 
SN?j4ftiH 
SNT54P4N 



341 

;■ u-3 

2.75 
1.41 
1.29 

325 

3 WJ 

\M 



345 
395 

3 EO 



295 

1 10 

■i H 



H ETAI L STORE S OPE N MON SAT 
STORE 1310 "B" E Edint 
ffl SanTa Ana, CA 92705 U2 TuSti 

.1 -varehQUie Sf^" 1 



ADW\NCED 

COMPUTER 
ODUCTS 



BECKMAN 

Digital Multimeters 

MODELS TECH W AM> TECH llfl 

\ ^ »ioo» .7 

Cmttf HdM -itiTiex nam «mh m r *ju»» 

;■ J r ITEJrt MtiiVVfE KCUTTt 

SWITCH VXm I D SS Hf xnncfM* tf ■> ^Mtafem 



'< ;■■.-.*. I*, ■> ■- 



C-T231 AC CuflWrl Clu«.. 
OL-241 DtVi* TmI LMd IS 
l\'24f 50V* T»M LHA 




ACP APPLE MUSIC MACHINE 

WITH 9 VOICES! 

• N El* llni l«M L u ■ * Br VI LSI T«di^w * 
<mm * mute «ft*t ■ MMiTni^ K^- 

3 Tlm« Hof* Powerful Than ALFI 

DI 11HJH 

j^i»i i: ji: irinr tltlH 



THE BONE FONE 




with sound 
No DBr13kJ05 

#& J65 95 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 

MPtWi-.!l'V,401r»cfci,..., 27B,G9 

Shugari SAtOM'V 36 VKk* 2S500 

Shugvi sco/soiRer 479.00 

SMmtrv Shugjrt Catnmttilt MotW 

FD0-i3»M0 4J9W 

PERSQ Modal 277 DuU. 11 95 00 

mHQQMmBt&mDfim 29U0O 

MPI B62 SV Dial 3*6.00 

WWOOffilEWENS 252 DuU 5 1 *' ...395.00 
WAHGO^lEUEHSfl? 2*100 



MONITORS 

Sanyofl" t16ft35 

SanyolS* 37A00 

L*«5ej< S?* ,..,.13M5 

MOrOtd* 12". HQh Hi»luli«n. 

22 MKj, OEM Mod»l 

•143000-340 213 00 

Zvnirri 1 3" Cotor UorWlDr. 43ft 00 

MGAIS'COIVTV 34600 

VAMF tfl- Color Monilejc.. . S76O0 
VAMP I 5~Col0f Won.lcj . . 449\G0 



SCOMT1 HHTM *P* C IALTI ES 



AM 35 B I D-:.ti Ca&K laria M*'w 
IMpI 33 J Tri-ModB Compariigf 
■«W l*-l JO crumri Lijc kfcrtlof 
M*H LK-1 kgc Uontfer 
H LKI ttflc Uwlcr 

■W Htl Unrvtrd Cotrte Tn*r 
HiHlHl 650 MHf FmquffKy CftrtP 
■Mil* 100 MHz Pert** Frpwjrt- Cftrtff 

14900 
fi-m 5M UHl Okjt* Pwsc* ?0<» 

■«-» SO MHz HjrdWd FtKMPn^ Ccu(*sr 

■ W i» SSC UH: Mvdhetd J=no>«rvy CointB 
14500 
mm 4H1 Prist SfeAib 93500 

«** IM Dia*J Pita* 6100 

Logc Probti 

■*MLM DC** Ltgc Pnrfli 
HaH IM Earamy Loos F^obi 
■aW uM HQft SpittS L cpe Frrtt 
■amin-l Lc^chrttXri 
Lnjfc fro&t A t tmanat ....zi 

■aWLTtLllC-ZLOOCIIMBlyMKltl 220/250 



27500 
29500 

55500 
60 00 
14?00 
19600 
35000 
35500 



JEM 
77 OS 
2 1 ^ 



|»m « Apple II. 16K 
i"3\ or Apple II. Plus $990 

■■* \ 16K Apple Upgrade Kft $62.95 



Ift-Soud Sanal I/O . 

" rVC.. 



SIO-CU 

1«w 
1KUN 

Apple CW 2M0Q 

kmd X-10 Syiajn J5355 

trxnst X-10 Con&T*r . 173-5* 

ins* 

19 Ch Araiog Inpji 

i >k*t xtypad . 

Vr.-Ci»: .. . 



»9JS 

1X00 



OS65 Chrj-Saclcr . 

Aak CnpVs tau 

DC H*fH Unsemli 
D«9{ II i#Ctf*Dlof 
Oak 11 

PaaafUrTg Syflan 
PnW Pnnay Cvd 



5349 00 tnfega ROU Cvd 

.72500 PratoCarri 
34995 HtiHUcKUiIrr 



Corns TO 



575 00 

47500 
4MO0 
15500 
19900 
52500 
(ha 
402500 



:&KL 



ft KM 



CvtttOoPllP. 

6" Ftwv Ccntofcr 



SIIHOO 

51 vS 

62 H 

ftgoo 

55000 

moo 

. I69K 
279 DO 

25000 



A ATARI" 800 & 400 

Personal Computer System 

ATARI 800 $750.00 
ATARI 400 $449.00 



ATARI 800 tncludfti: Co.tipulEr Console, BASIC Lang. Cartridge, Education 
Syslem Master Certndge, BASIC LsnguflgoProgramminfl Manual, GOO Operator 
Manual w/NotefiooK Atari ^10 Prograjn RecoicW, 8K RAM Module. Power 
Supply. TV Switch Box, 





Texas Instruments 

\*it OHPORAl tO 

99/4 PERSONAL COMPUTER 

SupeTKJf Cotof. Musk:. Sound and GrapMcs-and a 
Powerful Extended Basic - All Built In, 
Tl 99/4 Console: only 

avbiibift lor isaa. 90 



$1099.00 



Cr commodore 
PET J* M $775.00 

CHSCOUKT PRICKS LWVV ™ 



m« Hn«uc*ra«ir«>ht«f mac 

»P5« lVki!fEEttt »H 

l?»« KHa>fEECaii 4tH 

12HO0 13«&aaaftiaafttDu HH 





IES5 i^^J SI 74.95 
*£< 5154.95 



HOME BURGLAR ALARM 



ACP PHICE ONLY 

$189.00 



* Noinslalialion 

* Protects a whole house 

* Tunis on lights automa ttcatly 

* Powerful eTectiic siren 

* Exit and enlry delay 

* Battery back-up 




CRAIG LANGUAGE 

TRANSLATOR AND 

INFORMATION CENTER 




An in mm Ujinstilor 
at worett and 
e*\ri4*s Irani rlx? 
woritfj major tin' 
□uagaa plui ■ frm* 
tunClp&n cilculaicrf 
pi us i - .ki -n-.sl ,?r. 



(Mda, ate 
SPECIAL LOW PRICE ahha nc 

LIMITED TIME ONLY $1 iy,yD 

(UNTIL AUGUST 17J 
PLUS *20.00 REBATE FROM CRAIG 

Cft4JG MODULES AVAILABLE F^GM S2J 95 



The th«rmos1*li Inftl ui« mfa-OprcO«.Bor 
tactmoiggy lo u» fu*l and mocisy. 

PROGRAMMABLE 

TEMPERATURE 

CDNTRuLLEi 

ACP PRICE 

$69.95 

A fully automatic eleclronic Ihermo' 
stai. Easy lo install ar>d operate. 
Cornpare the cost: TPI's ternrjerature 

controller is (he lowest priced elec' 
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SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER SELECTION GUIDE 



BOARD 

KIM-1 

SVM-I 

Cromemco 
SO-SBC100 
AIM 65 
CosmacVtp 



PHOCESSOR 
6502 
6502 
Z80 

zeo 

S5Q2 
1802 



ACP PHICE 

169.00 
236.00 
409.00 
239.00 
375.00 
199.00 



ENCLOSURE 

Add2S.9S 

Add 39.9S 

N/A 

N/A 

Add 49-95 

Inc. 



Tustin. CA 92690 



P.O. Box 17329 Irvine, Calif. 92713 

Direct Order Lines: (714) 558-8813 

(800) 854-8230 or (800) 854-8241 



FOP INTERNATIONAL OROERS 
1401 E Bcuchaid (7141953*0604 
SanloAn,l,CA92705 TWX;910-595-l5B5 



CIRCLE 7 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 



Y ^-COMPUTER 



STATICX f RAM BOARDS 



« a-iooaaK iLise5;ii4} &**£'£&• 

ASSEMBLED Kit l'A* ™ 

450ns 499.00 *50ns 469.00 

250na 536,00 250ns 489 00 

Bare Board 49,95 
Bare Board Wall parts less mem. 99,95 



WOW! 



• S-10O 1BK (S-100 Compatible! 
a Low Power 

• 2 MHz or 4 MHl 

* Assembled & Tested 
2MHi.S250.0O 
4 M Hi.. .1265.00 

assembled 

450 ns 149.95 KIT 450ns 12595 
?50t>i 169.95 250ns 149 95 

Bare PC Board w/ Da la S2195 

'Special Otter' Buy IJ1 SK 450nS. Kils S1 1 7 00 



Th. VISTA V-60 

EMak DHv* System ^, (t , T[ 



THE VISTA V-200 FOR EXIDV 

PnCc SWng »i Vy, at SI I fiO.OO 






»b i'HK 

tl bi I S*T K 

»a. 15WW 

17 ta ItflO) 



"Tftjj 



ATTENTION VIDEO HOBBYISTS!!! 

* BOX BUILDERS 

* USE AS REMOTE TTJ MEff/Tl WJEfl 

♦ FULL BCH E MAT1C3 AVAI LABLf 
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A R«*« 5W*I PVChlM n4Wi Ui Tft PriWrJ TNi F fAnrng 

NEW, UNUSED COMPONENTS 
From Th* RCA VDT-201 

VideocastBtte Record or 



i UHhvw r«f hctarai; ■*» *■ £■*! 







i 2.4* 

hHB 1123.34 
it 5*1 rJ JJ rta K*a 

«». $74.95 

Float* Can For Volume Discounts 




LOW COST FLOPPY 
DISK SUBSYSTEM 

9fugjYl 40 1 P. trivM {3) WSlA tot&t 
CortfrcJia* |S-1 DO). Cut, Pp**r Staierr 
tE-*t*a CP/MDHtOpenhnffS-rtrin 

• CHECK CHJfl rtOCW r>K Pfll-CINOI 



SAVE S3O0.Q0 



[S179a.QOValuo) 



WATANABE Ml PLOT ■- -,| 

VMWX-t »*""*K WM** IDrhn, » * fj 

rrlU *r n "W u * HfXM iniW 1M Jf *■ JEf 

*m_*U^r*V <&*■••*> try* £*>**** S1 1 BSJ O , ■/ 



8K Sialic 
16K Sialic 
32K Sialic 



250 ns. 450 ns. 

£209.0® S1B9,0O 

$449.00 B39S.00 

$72900 S629.00 



ANADEX PRINTER HiwAPfutfEHavoK 

Model DP-SOOO compact impact, parallel or 
seria I Sprocket feed, 60 cols. 
S4 kies/min., bi-directional. 

Ne*onlv S875.00 

DP-S0O0AP |fry ApcrB r SB7S,Ou 



-it 1 - SD SYSTEMS BOARDS 

S* TAKE 10% OFFl ku assem 

5BC iDO^r^ Board Computa- rJMHfl tlftlK 5 H900 

SK 200 S-»flnt B»m C*flW»«i rfUMji 2*9 00 M] DO 

;r» Sulu SyHiwi 31*03 MtH 

VDB MJd V«lio D4D4, BMW yicrj 41* 00 

VrUftopCn/N MS 00 42400 

Eica-vJo PfiQM H5Q0 ZJ-5QO 

StUW'Coii*"!*' SfUi^.w'fciK - HUM 

SOXO Coi-Dwiiri 5ifW*m *■*■** - 7W5O0 



MODEL 
9AOOA 
«0* 

9601 



I MICROMODULE - PRICE LIST 

rO. DESCHlPTIGH PfllGE 

&ftgH Bovd M iCroe AnpjlBr M940D 

*d T ir<c»0 S.n^#60 CofflD (6fl03l 3*503 



96» 

BUD 

■;-:.<«• 

96TCJ 



!6 5:<ji Mdlher Btara USOO 

C«rdC*off 7500 

fl SU MQttHt Botrd 10DCO 

PiWfr 5u«*il 37500 

DC Irflul Per*Tr Soot*r 3J50O 

W*-1 » Rrolo Beard 39 00 

Ai<l«t PT«aM«mo^ Uixlukfl' 49r50O 

tiyrtiea uh*1y Prcio fca-i 4)00 

3JK EPPQMfflAM Medut* 2M0O 

EPflOM F'COrammng M**d 24003 

14 Cfmnntl P»rjllil VO M&dsil* ?B3 00 

S«a»>r*aV*U»l I/O M«]gl* 32S CO 

i6".S'4l<: RAM Mingle 4?rjni 34900 

3SK Smc RAM 4Hni fi9S M 

32K Stll-C RAM JOOr* fiK OC 

C4>4 Eitpnds^ HOO 

UulTQlt PlQg^■m 1 ^^lJ5*t Tim»r .JB5 OQ 

.6t>i--*iCiwrS*T.5«^ lOWrd 39900 

lf\r#*iaS«<it Tip, Ccntrtfvr i M qq 

Jf,3: IrOMHult 27/500 

Carrikd &;-iu'« UqAjIa jw m 
Lr-VOPuLA Tf J9CAROS rAria A^^Vn 



APPLE/EXIDY/EXPAMOO 
TRS 80 1SK-UPGRADE KIT 



>94.95 TRS-eO/APPLE $54.95 

MEMORY EXPANSION KITS. 
4116"$, 16K (200/250 ns.) 

6 pes for 154.95 

w/lnstructions & iumpers 
Call For Volume IPrJcing 

Kr Special: TPS80 Schernatic 5 4,95 

•k Expansion Interface Schematic - - S 4.95 
*■ Expansion interlace Connector. . . 7.S5 



IxliUMRAU II UI. 



MORY KITS 

4- Bank Seieclabie * Uses 41 15 200 ns. 

* Wrile P'OlecL.aif* Power SVCC. ±16VrDC 

* Phanlom <^S^S * Up 10 4 MHi 
Enpando S4 Kit (41161 Assem S, Tested Add S50 

16K $269.00 4SK S435.00 

.::-> S349.00 64K $50500 



HAZELT1NE TERMINALS 
SALE S 749,00 

* Mm *r*soo Upmisq; jicasrB 



Wf 



prom' 1 



Eraser 

Modal UV«-1 1 E *«.S5 
Holds 4 Eprom's at a time 
Backed by 45 years 
experience. 

M od« I S-5 2T . . . S 26 5 . OQ 

Prcii fl aa] o nji I Industrlfj Model 




EMAKO-20.. 

UNBELIEVABLE!! 

125 CfeC* »h&m -V^rti«U 

F-«vrLil Unit. ■ H &j>TJK' 

Ian- Upptf/Len«f Cam - 
45" 1C fl5' AcHwWl* 

- 90 col/40 dm dcvHt 
»- Jlh - FJI » C r.ir ASCII 



EMAKO-22..... 

Pn m e. ■ 1 32 coi/llna. Avai 
output at HM pnee. 



R«. 5777.00 SSQAiOO 




MIKA20..., ,„.S1260.00 

0x7, 125 ops l36cFunct*rs/Hfw 

Full IS" wKHrf. Super fty bmJnHl tppJicatiom. 
rgquiring larrje ]fJM Fonnjit paper. 




BASE II PRINTER 

K) Cotumi lp-fl«c: Pftn 

• 40 Lmi P*r Mnh 

• "V2.»VAC.» 
LV«HL 

«T2,H,». 120 6T 

ACP PRICE $550.00 

Ctft-i-M T r r-n.r-. 3 lS:.«.r.BjHlJj|fl?DCrT»rj I5vK 

Of«!ir>n 'S" M-gti. SfM«d Puvr Aduancc 1 QnjUiicai SOW 

QptlWT' TnJftlSf F«W . . 9000 

Z-80/Z-SOA/G080 CPU BOARD 

* On board 270a * 270S included 1450ns.) 

* Power on jump # completely socketed 

• Z-eO Assembled and Tested SI 85.00 

• Z-BO Kit SI 29.95 

• Z-80 Bare PC Board S 34.95 

* For 4MHi Speed Add SI 5.00 

BQBOAKIt s 99.95 

806OA Assembled S149.95 

S-1O0 MOTHERBOARD SPECIAL 

3 slot expandable w/9 conn. 

rag $69.95 NOW S52.9S 



SIEMEN'S FLOPPY 

SIEMENS 

$429.00 
SHUGART 
ttMtCK oun FLO#rr dim HuctNai 80 1 H 

OHTHiswoe S475.00 



* SpKrf bur *M* *J3^ latlt 

• 9G On WviAnrr 



ACOUSTIC MODEM 

NOVATION CAT™ 
0-300 Baud 

Bell 103 

Answer, Qrigcnaie $1 79.95 




DATA BOOKS * COMPUTER BOOKS 



■S9W lM^IWC3ft0mn-jji 



- If 



^Kintr 4 4! rVUutOKMManytVI 195 

SSCLnur Jto rloJ««l> 3 IJj f\MQ Scr«*1l(ir D«1«toC* 4« 

NSC CUDS JfS AMI MC*T.S! Data a IK. 

^MtrTDT, 3 15 til WOSfl-S.! LMIl £Kf 

Ml*l Diti'bocA 7H Mirrri Analog CMiibM* tff 

Vital MCS H5 M* |r n-iJ 7M Tl Liniar CowbVod Dal* 3VS 



U<nO0rVmcing Compbtira 
KtKkaV^rrjc^ripiiHr E^panirwnti * 

?<?-■ -it-* li : 

Reg m,n Gt*iriry 1 Gsi-da 

PMM Bu'l*. A Ji ■- r G-Jirta to Ci.-r^'a- 




FIRST TO OFFEFi PRfME PRODUCTS TO THE HOBBYIST AT FAiR PRICESI 

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1980 CATALOG HOW AVAILABLE. 

Sand S2.00foryQur rapyof fttmoet complete catalog of computer product*, 

A must 'or the serious, computer user. 



MICROPROCESSORS 

tlMLDQ 

.,.iei» 

.nr-PO.TB 

TAJO 

. 1(« 

. 1SH 

13« 

. *K) 

. .. n»5 

„»1UI 

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ADVERTISING INDEX 

RADIO -ELECTRONICS does not assume 
any responsibility for errors that may 
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Free Information Number Page 
27 AMCS*les 1 18 

— ATV Res*arch 106 

8 AP Products, Inc. 6 

13 Acti« Electronics 107 

45 Advanced Audio Systems.. ......„..,.,...,. .......... 92 

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learning more effective. 

Here is what you will know when you finish this easy- 
to-learn course: 

Programming — including hranching, algorithms and flow- 
charting. 

The SHOO Microprocessor — including architecture. Instruc- 
tion se(, addressing modes and interrupts. 



Interfacing — with ROM, HAM, displays and switches, D/A and 
A/D converters; using the Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA). 
Number Systems and Codes, Microcomputer Basics and 
Computer Arithmetic. 

Turn to pages 74 and 75 of the latest Heathkit Catalog for 
full details on the Microprocessor Course and Trainer — and 
our complete Sine of top-quality Heath/Zenith Courses. 

If you don't already have a Heathkit Catalog, send for 

your free copy at one of the addresses below. Or pick up 
your copy at the nearest Heathkit Electronic Center* in the 
U.S. and Canada, where Heath/Zenith Educational Courses 
are displayed and sold. 







Start on the road to your future in electronics with 
the award-winning Heath/Zenith Microprocessor 

Course. 

Don't wait until tomorrow for knowledge you can learn today. 

HEATH - 



"fNiTH 



Educational Systems 



Dept.OZO-mii, Benton Harbor, Ml 49022, 

in Canada." contact Heath /Zenith Educational Systems, 
14X0 Dundas St. E.. Mississauga, Ontario L4X2R7 

Also at Heathkit Electronic Centers from coast-to-coast. 

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Healhkil Sfctctroflfc f loafers *ra rimf.s of't'critcchnolngr tikctmnica torpornttrtn .1 



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IF YOU OWN A RADIO, THIS MICROPHONE 
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A speech processor microcircuit, de- 
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YOUR DOUBLE GUARANTEE 



GUARANTEE I: 

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GUARANTEE II: 

^.Unconditionally guaranteed lor 12 months. 
S|j Guaranteed against cracking, chipping, or 
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Suggested 
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AMERICAN ANTENNA 

ELGIN, ILLINOIS 60120 

S COPYRIGHT AMERICAN ANTENNA 






Sold exclusively by \3500 /American Dealers throughout the U.S. & Canada, 



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